Skip to main content

Full text of "[Report 1931]"

See other formats


COUNTY BOROUGH OF NORTHAMPTON. 


REPORT 


OF THE 


MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH 


FOR THE YEAR 1931. 


By STEPHEN ROWLAND, M.D.Edin., D.P.H.Camb., 

Medical Officer of Health, 
School Medical Officer, and 
Chief Tuberculosis Officer. 


























TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Introductory Letter . 5 

Public Health Staff . 6 

Summary of Statistics . 7 

I. —-Statistics and Social Conditions :—- 

Population . 8 

Census . 8 

Births . 9 

Stillbirths. 9 

Deaths . 9 

Social Conditions . 10 

Unemployment . 10 

Meteorology. 11 

Other Statistics . 11 

II. —General Provision of Health Services :— 

Local Government Act, 1929 12 

Poor Law Medical Out-Relief . 12 

Mental Deficiency Act, 1913 13 

Mental Treatment Act, 1930 13 

Public Health Officers . 14 

Nursing in the Home. 14 

Midwives . 14 

Laboratory Facilities . 14 

Legislation in Force . 14 

Hospitals . 15 

Maternity and Nursing Homes . 16 

Institutional Provision for Unmarried Mothers, etc. 16 

Ambulance Facilities . 17 

Clinics and Treatment Centres. 17 

Maternity and Child Welfare . 17 

Blind Persons . 17 

School Medical Service . 18 

IIP—-Sanitary Circumstances :— 

Water . 18 

Houses with Insufficient Water Supply. 19 

Polluted Wells . 20 

Rivers and Streams . 20 

Drainage and Sewerage . 20 

Closet Accommodation . 21 

Scavenging . 21 

Sanitary Inspection . 21 

Smoke Abatement . 21 

Canal Boats. 22 

Common Lodging Houses . 22 











































2 


PAGE 

Factories and Workshops . 22 

Offensive Trades. 22 

Tents, Vans, Sheds, etc. 23 

Premises Controlled by Bye-laws, etc. 23 

Disposal of the Dead . 23 

Schools .. . . . .. 23 

Rag Flock Acts, 1911 and 1928 24 

Rat Repression . 24 

IV. —Housing 

Council Houses . 24 

Other New Buildings . 24 

Housing Acts . 25 

Slum Clearance . 26 

Public Health Acts . 26 

Prosecutions . 26 

Sufficiency of Supply of Houses . 26 

Overcrowding . 27 

Housing Statistics . 27 

Other Housing Matters . 29 

V. —•Inspection and Supervision of Food :— 

Milk Supply. 29 

Milk in Schools . 29 

Tuberculosis Order, 1925 29 

Dairies, Cowsheds, and Milkshops . 30 

Sterilised Milk. 30 

Milk (Special Designations) Order, 1923 30 

Preservatives, etc. 31 

Food Inspection . 31 

Grading and Marking of Foodstuffs . 32 

Slaughterhouses . 32 

Public Health (Meat) Regulations, 1924 32 

Disease in Meat . 32 

Section 117 of the Public Health Act, 1875 32 

Bakehouses . 33 

Other Premises dealing with Food . 33 

Food Poisoning . 33 

Bacteriological Work . 33 

Chemical Work . 33 

Nutrition . 34 

Food and Drugs (Adulteration) Act, 1928 . 34 

VI. —-Prevalence of, and Control Over, Infectious and Other 

Diseases 

“ Zymotic Deaths ” 35 

Measles and Whooping Cough . 35 

Diarrhoea and Enteritis ( see also Appendix II.) . 36 

Influenza . 36 















































3 


PAGE 

Cerebro-spinal Fever . 36 

Acute Poliomyelitis . 36 

Encephalitis Lethargica . 36 

Enterica . 36 

Erysipelas . 37 

Chickenpox . 38 

Vaccination . 38 

Smallpox . 39 

Scarlet Fever . 39 

Diphtheria . 40 

Borough Hospitals. 41 

Pneumonia . 41 

Puerperal Fever (see also Appendix IF). 42 

Puerperal Pyrexia (see also Appendix II.) . 42 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum (see also Appendix II.) . 42 

Venereal Diseases . 42 

Tuberculosis (see also Appendix I.) . 43 

Cancer . 45 

Bacteriology . 45 

Disinfection . 45 

VII.—Maternity and Child Welfare (see also Appendix II.) :— 

General Remarks . 46 

Infant Mortality . 46 

Artificial Sunshine . 47 

Manfield Orthopaedic Hospital . 47 

Maternity Homes . 47 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum . 47 

Maternal Mortality. 47 

Health Visiting . 49 

Children Act, 1908 49 

APPENDICES. 

I.—Report of Clinical Tuberculosis Officer :— 

Notifications . 51 

Deaths . 51 

The Value of Prevention . 52 

Delay in Notification. 52 

The Patient . 53 

The Contacts . 53 

Housing . 54 

Revision of Register . 54 

Park Workers . 54 

Tuberculosis Dispensary . 54 

X-ray Plant . 55 

Residential Treatment . 55 

Welford Road Hospital . 56 

Creaton Sanatorium . 56 














































4 


PAGE 

Manfield Orthopaedic Hospital . 57 

Other Institutions . 57 

Public Health Act, 1925 . 57 

Public Health (Prevention of Tuberculosis) Regulations, 1925. . 57 

Statistical Tables . 58 

II. —Report of Assistant Medical Officer for Maternity and 
Child Welfare :—- 

General Arrangements . 64 

Infant Mortality . 64 

Notification of Births . 65 

Stillbirths . 65 

Home Visitation . 67 

Sunshine Treatment . 67 

Manfield Orthopaedic Hospital . 67 

Welfare Centres . 68 

Midwives . 68 

Maternity Homes . 69 

Maternity Cases at General Hospital . 69 

Pre-natal Work . 69 

Doctors’ Bills .. . 71 

Dental Treatment . 71 

Free Milk . 71 

Dried Milk . 72 

Puerperal Fever . 72 

Puerperal Pyrexia . 72 

Maternal Deaths. 72 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum . 72 

Diarrhoea and Enteritis . 73 

Children Act, 1908 73 

Statistical Tables . 74 

III. —Statistical Tables 

General Tables . 78 

Vital Statistics (Table A) . 91 

Cases of Notifiable Diseases . (Table B) 

Causes of Death .... . (Table C) 

Infant Mortality. (Table D) 

Factories, Workshops, etc... (Table E) 





































5 


To the Mayor, Aldermen, and Councillors of the County Borough 

of Northampton . 


Mr Mayor, Ladies, and Gentlemen, 

I present herewith the Annual Report of the Medical Officer of 
Health for the year 1931, which for statistical purposes embraces a 
period of fifty-two weeks ending on 2nd January, 1932. The statistical 
year is fixed by the Registrar-General to ensure uniformity throughout 
the country. 

The report is on the same lines as its predecessors, but, not being a 
five-yearly survey report, is not quite so full as the one issued last year. 

No new matter of any outstanding interest has been introduced. 

There were two small outbreaks of smallpox during the year, which 
we were able to eradicate before they had the opportunity of spreading. 

It is satisfactory to be able to report a marked falling off in the 
incidence of diphtheria in the Town during 1931, a fall which con¬ 
tinues up to the present moment. 

I again acknowledge the wholehearted assistance and support I 
have received from all members of my Staff during the year, a support 
which has enabled the work in the Department to be carried on without 
any friction and, as I hope, to the satisfaction and welfare of all con¬ 
cerned. 

I remain, Mr. Mayor, Ladies, and Gentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 



Public Health Department, 


Guildhall, Northampton, 
April, 1932. 


6 


PUBLIC HEALTH STAFF. 


Medical Officer of Health, School Medical 
Officer, and Chief Tuberculosis Officer 

Tuberculosis Officer 

Assistant Medical Officer for Maternity 
and Child Welfare 

Chief Sanitary Inspector and Rat Officer 

Sanitary Inspector and Inspector of 
Common Lodging Houses 

Meat and Food Inspector 

Sanitary Inspector and Inspector of 
Canal Boats 

Assistant Sanitary Inspectors 
Health Visitors 


Tuberculosis Nurse 
Matrons 


Clerks 


Removal and Disinfecting Staff 

Rat-catcher 


Stephen Rowland, 

M.D. Edin., D.P.H. Camb. 

. .Norman B. Laughton, 

M.B., Ch.B., D.P.H. 

Miss Evelyn F. Bebbington, 
M.B., Ch.B., D.P.H., 
M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

. . W. J. Barker*! 

J. Walker*! 

.. J. Brown*! 

B. Knowles*! 

. .T. L. Boast*! 

S. A. Tench* 

. . Miss L. M. IslipJ || 

Miss M. E. MosseyJ ||§ 

Mrs. F. H. Smith! |j§ 

Miss F. M. V. Blythe Brown! 
Miss E. C. Agar! \\^ 

. . Miss L. Reese || 

. .Miss M. E. Norman||§ 

(.Harborough Road Infectious 
Diseases Hospital) 

Miss K. B. Stone 11§ 

(W el ford Road Tuberculosis 
Hospital) 

. .A. F. Knight (Chief Clerk) 

S. J. Knight (Tuberculosis 
Dispensary) 

H. T. Boswell 
Miss G. L. York (Infant 
Welfare Centre) 

G. B. Pratt 

. .C. H. Williams 
A. W. Blason 
R. G. A. Britten 

.. J. Malone 


All the above are whole-time Officers. School Medical Staff is not included. 

*Holds Inspector’s Certificate of the Royal Sanitary Institute. 
fHolds Certificate for Inspecting Meat and Other Foods. 

I Holds Certificate of the Central Midwives Board. 

||General Trained Nurse. 

§Fever Trained Nurse. 

^{Holds Health Visitor’s Certificate. 


7 


SUMMARY OF STATISTICS. 

Area of Borough (in acres) . 

Population :—- 

Census 1921 . 

Census 1931 (provisional figure) . 

Estimated at Mid-year 1931 j L 01 ra ^ 

J t b or Death-rate. 

Number of Inhabited Houses :—- 

Census 1921 . 

According to Rate Books (31st December, 1931) . 

Number of Families or Separate Occupiers (Census 1921) . . , 

Rateable Value (31st December, 1931) . 

Yield of One Penny Rate (31st December, 1931). 


3,469 


90,895 

92,314 

92,970 

92,740 

19,893 

23,950 

21,979 

£608,126 

£2,402 


Extracts from Vital Statistics for the Year 1931. 


TOTAL. M. 


f Legitimate .1,171 607 

Live Births < Illegitimate . 62 28 

[ Total.1,233 635 

f Legitimate . 39 17 

Stillbirths J Illegitimate . 4 2 

[ Total. 43 19 

Deaths .1,091 540 


F. 

564 ^ 

34 y Birth-rate 13*3 
598 J 
22 | 

2 Rate . . O'46* 
24 J 

551—Death-rate 1L8 


“ Standardised Death-rate ” (Factor 0*921) . 10*8 

Percentage of Total Deaths occurring in Public Institutions . . 38*0 

Number of Women dying in, or in i From Sepsis . 4 

consequence of, Childbirth ( From Other Causes . . 1 

Deaths of Infants under One Year of Age per 1,000 Live Births 

Legitimate. .69’2 Illegitimate. .96*8 Total . 70*6 

NUMBER. RATE. 

“ Zymotic Deaths ” . 22 0*24 

Deaths from Measles (all ages) . 9 0*10 

Deaths from Whooping Cough (all ages) . 2 002 

Deaths from Diarrhoea (under two years of age) .... 7 f 

Deaths from Respiratory Tuberculosis . 70 0*75 

Deaths from Other Tuberculous Diseases . 14 0*15 

Total Tuberculosis Deaths . 84 0*90 

Deaths from Cancer . 148 1*60 

Deaths from Influenza . 23 0*25 


*33-7 per 1,000 Total (Live and Stillbirths) Births Registered. 
|5 - 7 per 1.000 Live Births Registered. 































8 


Population 


Census 


I.—STATISTICS AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS. 


It was mentioned in the Annual Report for 1930 that the 
Registrar-General intended making his estimate of the 1930 
mid-year population after receiving the provisional figure for 
the census taken in April, 1931, but to obviate delay in pub¬ 
lishing the report, as the 1930 figure was not available, use was 
made of the 1929 estimates. It was also mentioned (or hinted) 
that these figures might be inaccurate, which would necessitate 
some slight adjustment of the rates deduced from them. This 
supposition has proved to be correct, for it appears that for some- 
years the Registrar-General has been over-estimating the 
population of Northampton, for whereas at mid-year 1929 he 
gave the figure for birth-rate calculations as 94,180 and for death- 
rate purposes 93,970, in 1930 he said they were 93,460 and 
93,300. These figures were reduced in the 1931 estimate 
(after the census) to 92,970 and 92,740 respectively. The 
effect of the over-estimation of the population on the birth 
and death-rates was to make them both slightly lower than 
they were in actual fact. 

The natural increase of the population, i.e., the excess 
of births over deaths, for 1931 was 142, or T5 per thousand 
living. Table 1 (page 78) gives the estimated population and 
natural increase during each of the last ten years. 


The fourteenth census of the population of England and 
Wales was taken on 26th April, 1931. The provisional figure 
for the County Borough of Northampton is 92,314. In his 
Preliminary Report, the Registrar-General states—“ This 
information has been obtained in advance of the main statistical 
operations by so organising the procedure of enumeration as to 
permit of the simple figures being abstracted locally and sum¬ 
maries rapidly compiled by local registrars for assembly at the 
Census Office. The figures so prepared are subject to con¬ 
firmation in the substantive census reports based upon the 
actual census returns themselves, though no material dis¬ 
crepancy is to be expected, judging by past experience.” 

The figures for the Borough since the first census was 
taken in 1801 make interesting reading :—- 


1801 

1811 

1821 

1831 

1841 

1851 

1861 

1871 

1881 

1891 

1901 


7,020 

8,427 

10,793 

15,349 

21,242 

26,657 

32,813 

41,168 

51,881 

61,012 

87,021 













9 


1911 

1921 


90,064 

90,895 

92,314 


1931 (provisional) 


Information as to the age and sex constitution and marital 
state of the local population in 1931, the population of the 
twelve wards and the density per acre as well as the rooms 
available per person, the number of inhabited dwellings shew¬ 
ing those occupied by more than one family, and other useful 
information, e.g., occupations, usually contained in the census 
volume, is not yet available, but, unfortunately, some of it 
will be rendered of less value owing to the extension of the 
Borough and the alterations in wards as from 1st April, 1932. 

1,233 live births were registered, giving a birth-rate of Births 
13‘3 per thousand, compared with 158 for England and 
Wales. For once one is able to say the birth-rate was not 
the lowest ever recorded for the Borough. The continued 
fall in the birth-rate, which has now been in progress in this 
country for over half a century, has for some time been giving 
rise to feelings of disquietude amongst many social workers 
and statisticians and lately these feelings have been freely 
mentioned in the press, as it becomes more and more evident 
the population of Great Britian is reaching a stationary point 
when no increase will take place, to be followed by the in¬ 
evitable decrease. With the increased knowledge put at the 
disposal of practically all and sundry, it is only to be expected 
the birth-rate in England and Wales will continue to fall. 

Not only will the population tend to decline after a few years, 
but its age constitution will alter. Table 2 (page 78) gives 
the rates for the last ten years, compared with those for the 
country. 

Sixty-two (5*0 per cent.) of the births in 1931 were illegiti¬ 
mate, this being the highest number for ten years and the 
percentage is the highest since the war years. 

There were forty-three stillbirths registered, giving a Stillbirths 
rate of 0*4B per thousand of the population, as compared with 
0*67 for England and Wales. The rate expressed per thousand 
total births (live and still) registered was 33*7. 

There were 1,091 deaths registered, equal to a death-rate Deaths 
of 1T8, which is 0*3 above that for 1930, and compares with 
12 3 for England and Wales. The figures for the last ten 
years will be found in Table 3 (page 78). 

Ninety-five deaths occurred for which no medical certifi¬ 
cates of the causes of death were furnished ; these included 
ninety-three inquests and two coroner’s certificates after post¬ 
mortem examinations without inquests, or 8 - 7 per cent, of the 
nett deaths registered, 





10 


Social 

Conditions 


Unemploy¬ 

ment 


Deaths of elderly persons (sixty-five years of age and 
upwards) accounted for 482 per cent, of the deaths. This 
latter figure does not vary much from year to year. 

472 persons, including residents and non-residents, died 
in local institutions. The deaths of non-residents were trans¬ 
ferred by the Registrar-General to their respective areas. In 
a similar way the deaths of Northampton residents which took 
place in other parts of England and Wales were transferred to 
us as “ inward transfers.” 

The “ standardised death-rate ” for Northampton (ob¬ 
tained by applying the Registrar-General’s factor for age and 
sex constitution to the crude rate) was 10'8 per thousand. 

Table C at the end of this report, giving the causes of death 
at different periods of life, has been prepared in the Public 
Health Department from information supplied weekly by the 
local registrars. The classification agrees closely with the 
figures received from the Registrar-General on 11th March, 
1982. 

The social conditions in the Borough vary little from year 
to year. The staple industry, boot and shoe making, has 
remained in a fairly satisfactory state. The other trades 
have been similarly employed, but there is great need of some 
new industry in the Town to absorb a proportion of those 
unemployed who will probably never again work at the shoe 
trade. At least we must be thankful Northampton has not 
known the unemployment and poverty which have rested for 
years like a pall over the industrial areas of the north. 

From information kindly supplied by the Manager of the 
Employment Bureau, there appears to have been a consider¬ 
able increase in the amount of unemployment in Northampton 
during 1931 and this increase has been in progress during 
practically the whole of the twelve months. On 28th July, 
1930, there were on the register 4,002 unemployed persons, 
which by the corresponding date in 1931 had become 5,824, 
and by the end of December, 1931, approximately 8,000, 
about 6,000 of whom were totally unemployed. The year 
under consideration was the worst of any during the present 
industrial depression and this increase in unemployment 
affected males more than females. 

The Borough Engineer has again kindly furnished in¬ 
formation relating to public works undertaken with the object 
of alleviating to some degree the amount of unemployment :—- 

Average number 
of unemployed 
engaged. 

1.—Terracing playing fields at rear of North¬ 
ampton School for Girls and Technical College, 

St. George’s Avenue. (16th October, 1930, to 
16th July, 1931). 160 



11 


2. —Abington Park Lake. Cleaning bottom. 

(22nd January to 16th April, 1931). 42 

3. —Kingsthorpe Bathing Place. Construction of 

paddling pool. (22nd January to 23rd July, 

1931) .~. 20 

4. —Dallington Park. Levelling playing pitch. 

(29th January to 16th April, 1931) . 20 

5. —Non-classified roads (£65,000 loan scheme). 

Reconstruction of roads. (5th March to 1st 
October, 1931) . 145 

6. —Main Drainage Scheme. Contract works— 

contracts 1, 2, 3, and 4. (Commenced 6th 
July, 1931—works incomplete) . 202 


As in former years, the records (see Table 4, page 79) from Meteorology 
which these notes were compiled were supplied by Mr. R. H. 

Primavesi. The chief point of note, and one which will be 
remembered by all who take an interest in the weather, was 
the almost complete failure of the summer as we understand 
that word, not so much due to an abnormally heavy rainfall 
as to the lack of sunshine. How much the latter fell below 
the normal for the Borough I have no means of knowing, but 
it was certainly considerable. 1931 was not marked by any 
extremes of temperature, but the mean in the autumn months 
was considerably above the average. The mild autumn 
and winter will be long remembered. The highest shade 
reading recorded during the year was 78'0°F. on 28th June 
and the lowest 23‘5°F. on 10th March. There was no pro¬ 
longed period of frost. There were forty-nine cold nights, 
i.e., nights on which the temperature fell to 32°F. (freezing 
point) or below. The total rainfall was 22'67 inches, which 
is P74 inches below the average for twenty-seven years. The 
first three months were dry, the total at the end of the quarter 
being only 3'18 inches. August was the wettest month with 
3’53 inches. The heaviest fall in twenty-four hours was 
P05 inches on 8th August, which only exceeded by O'05 inches 
the amount registered on 14th July. There was very little 
snow during the year. Unfortunately we have no record of 
the velocity of the wind, but one cannot recall any outstanding- 
gales during the year, and looking through the direction records 
it would appear that easterly wind was not so prevalent as 
Usual. 

The notes on infant mortality, the incidence and mortality Other 
from infectious diseases, housing conditions, and other statistics Statistics 
usually included in the annual report, will be found under the 
headings referring to these matters. 

Attention is directed also to the vital statistics on page 7, 
and to Tables A, B, C, and D at the end of this report. 







12 


Local 

Government 
Act, 1929 


Poor Law 

Medical 

Out-Relief 


II.—GENERAL PROVISION OF HEALTH SERVICES. 

The coming into force of this Act on 1st April, 1930, has 
not made much difference either to the public health service 
or to the poor law service, which was transferred from the 
Board of Guardians to the Public Assistance Committee of 
the Corporation. The functions definitely transferred to the 
Public Health and Maternity and Child Welfare Committees 
by the Act, viz :—vaccination (see page 38) and infant life 
protection (see pages 49 and 73), are being carried out by those 
committees respectively. As mentioned on page 15, it has 
not been found possible to transfer the infirmaries at the 
Institution, Wellingborough Road, to the Public Health 
Committee, the whole institution being administered as a 
f ‘ mixed institution ” by the Public Assistance Committee 
under the general supervision of the Medical Officer of Health. 

No “ declaration ” has been made by the Council, except 
regarding the education of children (Education Act, 1921). 

So far there has been no meeting of the Public Health 
Committee or Public Assistance Committee with the North¬ 
ampton General Hospital authorities under Section 13 of the 
Local Government Act, 1929. One probable reason why such 
a meeting has not taken place is that there was no very urgent 
call for it as the General Hospital is able to undertake the 
treatment of all acute cases, which the Public Assistance 
Infirmary could not help in relieving, though it can receive 
from the General Hospital chronic incurable patients as 
requested by the Hospital authorities. A meeting under 
Section 13 of the Local Government Act will take place when 
found necessary. 

For this purpose the Borough is divided into three districts. 
The Medical Officer of No. 1 District (comprising the wards of 
Abington, Kingsley, St. Crispin’s, St. Edmund’s, St. Michael’s, 
and South, with a population of approximately 43,000) is Dr. 
E. Robertson, 220, Kettering Road. No. 2 District (population 
about 44,000) comprising Castle, Kingsthorpe, North, St. James,’ 
and St. Lawrence’s Wards is allotted to Dr. J. Cullen, 8, Langham 
Place. No. 3 District contains Delapre Ward only (population 
about 7,000), the Medical Officer being Dr. H. F. Percival, 2, 
Spencer Parade. They also act as public vaccinators in the 
same districts. These officers were taken over by the Council 
along with Dr. C. Mills, the non-resident Medical Officer of the 
Poor Law Institution, when the work of the Guardians was 
transferred to the Public Assistance Committee on 1st April 
1930. No changes have been brought about so far as poor 
law medical out-relief is concerned owing to the transfer. 
The three District Medical Officers referred to are, by an arrange¬ 
ment between the Northamptonshire County Council and the 
County Borough Council, still acting for the same areas as they 


13 


did under the late Boards of Guardians, the apportionment of 
the salaries between the two authorities being agreed upon. 

During the year a survey of the work of the Mental Mental 
Deficiency Committee was carried out by Miss M. Laxton, Deficiency 
one of the organisers under the Central Association for Mental 
Welfare. The whole subject was reviewed very thoroughly 
and while the report acknowledged that much valuable work 
was being carried out in the Borough by the existing schemes, 
it was suggested a full-time paid organiser should be appointed 
to deal with and advise mental defectives and their guardians 
as to the best means of dealing with these cases and to co¬ 
ordinate the work now in progress. It was also recommended 
that a mental welfare association should be formed absorbing 
all the existing agencies at present working on the problem. 

Miss Laxton’s report was discussed by the Mental Deficiency 
Committee and also by the Education Committee, but was not 
adopted by the Town Council at its meeting on 10th November, 

1931. 

The number of known mental defectives in the Borough 


given in the report was :—- 

Statutory cases . 67 

Education cases. 365 

At Public Assistance Institution . 29 

Referred from other sources . 29 


Total . 490 


Northampton, like most towns and counties, suffers from 
lack of suitable accommodation for the mentally defective 
and I am afraid the scheme now being commenced at Bromham 
House, near Bedford, in conjunction with Northamptonshire 
and Bedfordshire County Councils, will not completely solve 
the problem. It is essential that we move the mental cases 
from Wellingborough Road Institution as soon as possible, 
as the latter institution is the wrong place for them. To herd 
together the various degrees of mentally defective with the 
normal is contrary to sound practice. It is also contrary to 
the spirit of the Local Government Act, 1929. 

The Mental Treatment Act, 1930, came into force on 1st Mental 
January, 1931. The new Act seeks to remove the stigma which Treatment 
has attached to insanity from very remote times and to place Act ’ 1930 
mental illness side by side with other forms of sickness. The 
Act also seeks to establish a preventive side to mental work, 
thus bringing the latter into line with modern medical practice. 

Provision is made for the treatment of (a) voluntary patients 
and ( b ) temporary patients. Up to the end of the year we had 
# 









14 


Public 

Health 

Officers 


Nursing 
in the Home 

Miclwives 


Laboratory 

Facilities 


Legislation 
in Force 


not received any applications from persons wishing to be treated 
as either voluntary or temporary patients. 

Under Section 6 of the Act an out-patient clinic for persons 
suffering from early mental disorder was established by the 
Local Authority, in conjunction with the General Hospital 
authorities, and is held weekly at the General Hospital, being 
conducted by Dr. E. D. T. Hayes, a member of the medical staff 
at Berrywood Mental Hospital. Thirty-six Borough residents 
received treatment or advice at the clinic up to the end of 
December. 

A list of the whole-time officers of the Public Health 
Department will be found on page 6. 

Prior to 1931, the part-time officers connected with the 
Department included two medical officers, one male orderly, 
and one nurse at the Venereal Diseases Clinic ; one non-resi¬ 
dent medical officer and his deputy at the Public Assistance 
Committee’s Institution, Wellingborough Road ; three public 
vaccinators who also act for poor law medical out-relief ; a 
public analyst ; and two vaccination officers. During 1931 a 
consultant obstetrician and a veterinary surgeon were added 
to the part-time staff. 

The staff employed in the school medical service is men¬ 
tioned in the paragraph dealing with that subject on page 18. 

No change has been made in this service since my last 
report, where an account appears on page 11. 

It has not been found necessary to subsidise any midwife 
and no practising midwife is employed by the Local Authority 
beyond those on the staff of the Poor Law Infirmary. Twenty- 
five midwives gave notice of intention to practise during 1931. 
(See also paragraph in Appendix II., page 68). 

No change was made with respect to the carrying out of 
this work during the year under review. (See page 12 of 1930 
report). 

It is not proposed to reprint the list of Local Acts, General 
Adoptive Acts, and Bye-laws relating to public health in 
force in the Borough given on pages 12 and 13 of last year’s 
report, but the following require to be added to the Local 
Acts and Orders to bring the list up to date :— 

Northampton Extension Act, 1931. 

The Northampton (Public Works Facilities, Compulsory 
Purchase) Confirmation (No. 1) Order, 1931. 

The Northampton (Public Works Facilities, Compulsory 
Purchase) Confirmation (No. 2) Order, 1931. 

The Northampton (Public Works Facilities, Compulsory 
Purchase) Confirmation (No. 3) Order, 1931. 

The Northampton (Grafton Street) Housing Confirmation 
Order, 1931. 

m 


15 


A full account of the four municipal hospitals was given Hospitals 
on pages 14, 15, and 16 of my last report. The following needs 
to be added to bring the information up to date :— 

Harborough Road Infectious Diseases Hospital. 

Mention was made of certain improvements at this hospital. 

The addition to the administrative block, comprising what is 
practically a new nurses’ home, was completed and opened by 
His Worship the Mayor (Mr. Councillor E. Ingman, J.P.) on 
3rd September. The building is up-to-date in all respects, 
with central and electric heating, hot and cold water being 
installed in all bedrooms. In addition to the new building, 
alterations were made in the existing one, central heating being 
installed throughout. The kitchen was altered and enlarged, 
a double gas cooking range being substituted for the old one and 
the obsolete coal range was removed. A new maple floor was 
laid in Ward II. and the roof of this ward, along with that of the 
Isolation Block (A and B) was re-tiled. The whole of the 
institution was re-decorated inside and out. (See also page 
41). 

Welford Road Tuberculosis Hospital. The additions 
and alterations here were commenced in the autumn and were 
almost completed in April, 1932. The additions to the wards 
comprise two cubicles, one on the male and the other on the 
female side, for the reception of patients who are very ill and 
require more quietness than can be obtained in the large wards. 

Work is also progressing on the administrative block to provide 
additional bathrooms, etc. During the autumn, electricity 
was introduced to replace gas as a means of lighting and has 
proved a great success. (See also page 56). 

Smallpox Hospital. This hospital has been maintained 
in a good state of repair and in such a condition as to be able 
to receive patients, if need be, at a few hours’ notice. (See 
also page 41). 

The Infirmary, Wellingborough Road Institution. 

For some time it had been the hope of many members of the 
late Board of Guardians that it would be possible to get rid of 
the antiquated institution, formerly called the Workhouse, 
with its old badly-planned infirmaries, lacking so many modern 
requirements, and build a new municipal general hospital 
on the outskirts of the Town, probably at Kingsthorpe, 
and it was thought the coming into force of the Local 
Government Act would have proved a stimulus to this 
project, but the present grave financial crisis has con¬ 
vinced most, if not all, members of the Council that such an 
undertaking is out of the question for some time to come. 

Owing to the impossibility of separating the infirmaries from 
the rest of the institution, the Public Health Committee was not 
able to appropriate the infirmaries under the Public Health 
Acts and, although they came under the Corporation with 
the coming into force of the Act of 1929, they still remain under 



16 


the administration of the Public Assistance Committee. As 
stated in my last report (pages 15 and 16), both the male and 
female infirmaries are very old and badly planned, being three¬ 
storeyed buildings without lifts or operating theatre and 
incapable of being brought up to date, but improvements can 
be made in them, and this matter, together with additions to 
the nurses’ home, are now being considered by the Com¬ 
mittee, working on the lines suggested in the reports submitted 
by the Medical Officer of Health. There is no children’s 
ward ; children under the care of the Public Assistance Com¬ 
mittee requiring institutional treatment will receive it at the 
General Hospital by arrangement, or if the disease be infectious 
they will be treated at Harborough Road Hospital. 

A description of Northampton General Hospital, Manfield 
Orthopaedic Hospital, and Creaton Sanatorium appeared in 
my report for 1930, pages 16 and 17. Further reference is made 
to Manfield Hospital on pages 47, 57, and 67 of this report and 
to Creaton Sanatorium on page 56. 


Maternity At the end of December, 1931, there were on the register 


a seven nursing homes, viz :— 

Homes* 3 Maternity Homes . 2 

Mixed Home . 1 

Homes for Aged and Infirm, etc. 3 

Home for Mothers and Babies . 1 


The last mentioned institution is St. Saviour’s Home, 
which is conducted by the Peterborough Diocesan Authorities 
and was fully described on page 18 of my last report. 

The Northampton General Hospital and the Nursing 
Home at Bethany Homesteads are exempted annually under 
the provisions of Section 6 of the Nursing Homes Registration 
Act, 1927. 

There were no new applications for registration in 1931, 
but one home formerly registered for maternity cases was 
re-registered to take not more than three medical or surgical 
patients at any one time. The keeper of a house registered 
for one non-maternity case removed and the registration, 
therefore, lapsed. 

All these institutions were visited and inspected at regular 
intervals by the Assistant Medical Officer for Maternity and 
Child Welfare, or by her deputy, the Senior Health Visitor, 
who was appointed during the year by the Local Supervising 
Authority to carry out this duty. (See pages 47 and 69). 


Institutional 
Provision for 
Unmarried 
Mothers, etc. 


No changes have been made in the institutional provision 
for unmarried mothers, illegitimate infants, and homeless 
children, described on page 18 of the report for 1930. 






17 


Infectious Cases. A new motor van was purchased 
during the year. Whilst it may be called a van and its chief 
use is for the removal of bedding to and from the Disinfecting 
Station, it is so constructed as to be readily converted into an 
efficient ambulance. Soon after obtaining delivery of the 
above, we disposed of one of the old Ford ambulances, which 
had been in constant use either with the St. John Ambulance 
Brigade or under the Public Health Committee since 1916. 
At the present time the Department owns two motor ambu¬ 
lances and one vehicle which can be used either as an ambu¬ 
lance or a van. 

Non-infectious and Accident Cases. Ambulance 
facilities for these are provided by the Northampton Branch 
of the St. John Ambulance Association. 

Maternity Patients. These are also moved by the 
Ambulance Association. 


The Maternity and Child Welfare Centres, School Clinic, 
Orthopaedic Clinic, Tuberculosis Dispensary, and Venereal 
Diseases Clinic were described on pages 19 and 20 of last year’s 
report. The only alteration to record is the establishment of 
a new clinic at the General Hospital for the treatment of early 
cases of mental disease under the Mental Treatment Act, 
1930. Mention has already been made of this on page 14. 

The information asked for by the Ministry of Health in 
Circular 1206 with regard to maternal mortality, the arrange¬ 
ments for the visiting of children between the ages of one 
and five years, and the administration of Part I. of the 
Children Act, 1908, is given in the section dealing with matern¬ 
ity and child welfare, pages 47 to 50. 

Tne Blind Persons Act is administered by the Blind 
Persons Committee, consisting of His Worship the Mayor 
and twelve members, eight being members of the Borough 
Council and four co-opted. At the end of the year there were 
in the Town 133 persons certified as blind within the meaning 
of the Blind Persons Act. Of these :—• 

4 were in the Wellingborough Road Institution ; 

1 was at the Home for the Blind, Southend-on-Sea ; 

4 were in school at Birmingham ; 

3 were in training at Birmingham ; 

28 were employed in the Workshops, Gray Street ; and 

93 were classified as unemployable and were living at home 
or in lodgings. 

Those employed in the Workshops, Gray Street, 
receive an augmentation grant of one pound per week to supple¬ 
ment their earnings. 

The unemployables have their incomes (from whatever 


Ambulance 

Facilities 


Clinics and 
Treatment 
Centres 


Maternity 
and Child 
Welfare 


Blind 

Persons 


18 


School 

Medical 

Service 


Water 


source derived) made up to twenty-five shillings per week by 
the Blind Persons Committee. 

There is a handicraft class for the unemployable blind 
attended by some fifteen persons, and a home teacher is 
provided, who gives her whole time to Borough cases. 

No action has been taken under Section 66 of the Public 
Health Act, 1925, for the prevention of blindness or for the 
treatment of persons suffering from any disease or injury to 
the eyes. 

The Medical Officer of Health, acting as School Medical 
Officer in an administrative capacity, is able to keep the 
Public Health and School Medical Departments in close touch 
with each other, much closer than would otherwise exist. 
The Assistant School Medical Officer, Dr. Mason, assisted on 
three half-days per week by Dr. Atteridge and by the Tuber¬ 
culosis Officer, Dr. Laughton, on two half-days (under an 
arrangement mentioned in my last report, page 21) was able 
to work off the arrears in school medical inspection and bring 
the routine inspections up to date so as to satisfy the require¬ 
ments of the Board of Education. No changes were made in 
the Staff of the School Clinic. The appointment of an addit¬ 
ional clerk in the Dental Clinic in 1930 to provide extra chair- 
side assistance for the dental surgeons has proved a success, 
as it allows the dentists to devote more time to the part of their 
work requiring the highest skill instead of having to spend it 
on sterilisation of instruments, etc., which can be well per¬ 
formed by a clerk. The work of the Clinic again proceeded 
smoothly, including the arrangements with the General 
Hospital authorities for the removal of tonsils and adenoids. 

The whole-time staff employed on school medical work at 
the close of the year was one medical officer designated as Assis¬ 
tant School Medical Officer, two dentists, three nurses, and four 
clerks. Two medical officers devote part time to school inspec¬ 
tion and an ophthalmic surgeon and a radiologist are also em¬ 
ployed part-time. Arrangements have been made in addition 
for the services of an ear, throat, and nose specialist for the 
removal of tonsils and adenoids. 

The average number of scholars on the school registers was 
12,345, the average attendance being 11,338 (9P8 per cent.). 

The annual report of the School Medical Officer, prepared 
according to the requirements of the Board of Education for the 
Education Committee, is published separately and gives details 
of the work performed by the school medical service. 

(See also “ Schools,” page 23). 

III.—SANITARY CIRCUMSTANCES. 

The sources of the Borough water supply were described 
in the report for 1930. No important extensions of the service 
were undertaken during 1931. The average daily consumption 


19 


per head for the year was 20*77 gallons, which was adequate for 
all purposes. 

Sixteen samples were taken for analysis, twelve being 
sent to the Bacteriologist and four to the Public Analyst for 
chemical examination. The smallest amounts of water in which 
typical B. Coli were found were 1 c.c. on 4th March and 10 c.c. 
on 28th January ; with these exceptions they were never 
found in less than 50 c.c. Apart from the sample on 4th March, 
the number of organisms found per c.c. was very small, for 
example, on nutrient agar at 37°C. they averaged sixteen in 
two or three days. As stated in previous reports, this, in my 
opinion, is one of the most reliable tests of purity. After each 
chemical examination the Public Analyst reported that in his 
opinion the water was suitable for drinking purposes. Appen¬ 
ded will be found typical bacteriological and chemical reports:—- 

Bacteriological Report. (Sample No. 286, taken 
20th November). 

“ No typical B. Coli recovered from 100 c.c. or less of 
sample. 

Atypical B. Coli present in 20 c.c. of sample but not less. 

10 c.c. McConkey plates . 2 colonies. 

1 c.c. Nutrient Agar . 12 colonies. 

1 c.c. Nutrient Gelatine . 12 colonies plus 

1 liquefying colony. 

Bacteriologically this is a very good sample of water.” 

(Eric Id. Shaw, Bacteriologist ). 

Chemical Report. (Sample No. 170, taken 11th August). 

Grains per gallon. 


Total Solids . 22*40 

Combined chlorine . 1*68 

equal to Sodium Chloride . 2*77 

Nitrogen as Nitrates. 0*08 

Nitrogen as Nitrites . nil 

Saline Ammonia . 0*0007 

Albuminoid Ammonia . 0*0059 

Oxygen absorbed from Permanganate (4 

hours at 80°F.) . 0*05 

Hardness (temporary) . 12*60 

Hardness (permanent) . 1*23 

Hardness (total) . 13*83 


Remarks -This sample has the usual character of the 
Town supply and is, in my opinion, satisfactory for drinking 
purposes.” 

(A. Prideaux Davson , Public Analyst). 

In some of the older parts of the Borough, blocks of houses 
have hitherto been supplied with Town water from a stand¬ 
pipe in the yard or forecourt, common to all the houses in the 
block, so that in some instances eight or ten families would 
draw their supply from the common tap. These premises have 


Houses with 
Insufficient 
Water 
Supply 
















20 


Polluted 

Wells 


Rivers and 
Streams 


Drainage 

and 

Sewerage 


no flushing cisterns to the water closets and the distance of 
the common tap from the closets leads to very infrequent and 
inadequate flushing. Houses with this form of supply have 
been taken in hand from time to time with a view to having 
water installed on the premises, but not necessarily indoors, 
because many of them are not fitted with sinks and in some 
there is no suitable situation in which to place one. Secondly, 
until the Council adopted Section 49 of the Public Health Acts 
Amendment Act, 1907 (which came into force in the Borough 
on 21st March, 1932), we were not in a position to enforce the 
provision of sinks with the necessary drainage for carrying off 
waste water. During 1930 twenty-six houses were supplied 
with Town water on the premises and in 1931 ninety-three were 
so dealt with. 

Particulars regarding the closing of the “ Jubilee Well,” 
Kingsthorpe, on account of pollution will be found under 
the heading “ Enterica ” on page 36. 

Another well in Kingsthorpe (situated in the back garden 
of a house in Manor Road), from which five houses drew their 
supply, was found on examination by the Public Analyst to be 
so polluted as to be unsafe for drinking purposes. Acting on 
this information the Borough Surveyor certified the premises 
as being without a proper water supply. The Local Authority 
ordered Town water to be laid on and the owners filled in the 
well voluntarily. 

A similar position arose over a well in Harborough Road 
supplying four houses. Town water was laid on to the houses 
concerned and the use of the well water was restricted, on a 
magistrates’ order, to non-domestic purposes. 

No action was taken with regard to the River Nene or any 
of its tributaries, as they were not so polluted as to be a nuisance 
or dangerous to health. Whilst not suitable for drinking 
purposes the river is quite fit for non-domestic use. 


The reconstruction of the main sewers of the Borough, 
together with the outfall works, etc., was commenced during 
1931, the contract being divided into four portions, each part 
being undertaken by a different firm of contractors. The 
work is not expected to be completed before 1933 (at a cost of 
over £200,000) when a full report of the scheme will appear. 
At the present time a resident chemist is in charge of the 
laboratory at the Sewage Disposal Works, Great Billing, where 
daily examinations of the effluent are made, the whole being 
under the direction of the Borough Surveyor, who has kindly 
furnished me with the following information regarding drainage 
work carried out by, or under the supervision of, his Depart¬ 
ment during the year :— 


21 


Provision of sewers and surface-water drains, Kettering 
Road Housing Estate (sections 2, 3, and 4). 

Main Drainage Scheme (parts of Far Cotton and St. James’ 
main drainage). 

Reconstruction of sewer, Arthur Street. 

New sewer, Mill Lane, Semilong (private street works). 

Repairs to sewers after subsidence in Campbell Square, 
Lower Mounts, and Kingsley Road. 

No conversions from the conservancy to the water-carried 
system of sewerage were made and none are necessary, as the 
few conservancy closets (eleven) which exist in houses within 
the Borough are not in populous and closely built centres, 
but are in situations where it is not possible to connect with 
an existing sewer. There are, in addition, two works premises 
with closets on the conservancy system. 


No extension or improvement in the methods of scavenging 
or refuse disposal were made during the year, as none were 
required. The methods recently introduced in the Borough 
were explained in my report for 1930 (pages 23 and 24) and all 
one needs to add is that the scheme is working satisfactorily 
and is a great improvement on anything in vogue prior to its 
instalment. 

The work of the sanitary inspectors is summarised in Table 
5 (page 80) and Tables 6 and 7 give further particulars in 
connection with house drainage. During the year, 1,863 
houses were inspected, of which 1,122 were found to require 
some attention, with the result that 778 were repaired and 
651 were cleansed and whitewashed, while others were dealt 
with as the conditions required, details of which appear in Table 
5. 


There are few factory chimneys in Northampton, in spite 
of its being an industrial town, and the Local Authority has not 
found it necessary to make bye-laws relating to the emission of 
black smoke. From time to time one reads in the press and 
receives literature regarding smoke abatement, from which 
one is rather led to infer that considerable damage is done by 
house smoke and to see in the propaganda an attempt to get 
householders to use smokeless fuel of one kind or another in 
domestic grates. Personally, I do not think much harm is 
done by domestic smoke ; it is the smoke from factory chim¬ 
neys which is harmful to buildings, etc., and probably is a source 
of respiratory complaints, especially in old persons. If one 
compares the atmospheric conditions in Northampton with those 
prevailing in a town of equal size in Lancashire when the 
cotton trade is (or was) working under normal conditions, one 
is immediately struck by the difference, There will be approxi- 


Closet 

Accommo¬ 

dation 


Scavenging 


Sanitary 

Inspection 


Smoke 

Abatement 


22 


Canal Boats 


Common 

Lodging 

Houses 


Factories 

and 

Workshops 


Offensive 

Trades 


mately the same number of house chimneys emitting smoke 
in the two towns, but in the Lancashire town there may be 
anything up to a hundred factory chimneys belching forth and 
it is these which make the difference in the atmosphere. I 
would require much convincing that the use of smokeless fuel 
for domestic purposes is called for in Northampton, at least on 
the score of smoke abatement. If it be advocated as an 
economic measure there may be something in it, but upon that 
point I am not qualified to speak. 

The Annual Report under the Canal Boats Acts was 
dispatched to the Ministry of Health before the appointed 
date, 21st January. Mr. Knowles, the Canal Boats Inspector, 
inspected twenty-five boats, which were registered to carry 
eighty-three adults. The actual number of occupants at the 
time of inspection was fifty-one adults and twenty-seven 
children. One boat was overcrowded and one was without a 
certificate, was not properly marked, and required repairs. 
No case of infectious disease occurred. The number of boats 
on the register and believed to be in use is three. 

The number of common lodging houses on the register at 
the end of 1931 was four, the same as in the previous year, with 
accommodation for 161 men. There is no common lodging 
house accommodation for females, these (being occasional 
travellers) find shelter in the casual wards at the Union. The 
premises were visited at frequent intervals by Inspector Walker, 
whose duty it is to carry out this work. The Medical Officer 
of Health and Chief Sanitary Inspector also visited from 
time to time. One of the registered premises is old and not in 
a very good state of repair and I think its end cannot be long 
delayed, unless a considerable amount of money is spent on the 
old building. Small defects were discovered on several of 
the visits, but these were remedied without any legal proceedings. 

We have no houses let in lodgings. 

Table E, right at the end of this report, gives an account of 
the work done under the Factory and Workshop Act, 1901, set 
out in the prescribed form. The general scheme under which 
the Act is worked is that H.M. Inspector of Factories supervises 
the sanitary condition of all textile and non-textile factories, 
leaving the sanitary authority to take charge of workshops, 
workplaces, and domestic factories. If the Factory Inspector 
finds an insanitary condition in a factory he refers the matter 
to the local sanitary authority for necessary action. 

Though the names of two tanners and three tripe boilers 
are on the register of offensive trades, these businesses are 
actually carried on without giving the slightest offence to 
anybody. This is chiefly due (as regards the tanners) to 


23 


modern methods employed in dealing with flesh adhering to 
raw hides. The premises were kept under observation, but 
no infringements of the bye-laws were observed or complaints 
received. 

There are no permanent tent or caravan dwellers in the 
Town. At fair times, however, there is the usual influx of 
such people. The supervision of these is provided for by the 
bye-laws, which the sanitary inspectors enforce. 

Particulars of these, excepting the above-mentioned, 
will be found in Section V. (pages 29 to 35) dealing with food, 
as they comprise cowsheds, dairies, bakehouses, slaughter¬ 
houses, ice cream shops, etc. 

There are three cemeteries for the disposal of North¬ 
ampton’s dead. Two are owned by the Corporation and one 
by a company. Both the Corporation cemeteries are at present 
situated outside the Borough, but will be brought within it 
when the boundaries are extended on 1st April, 1932. 

1. —Kingsthorpe Cemetery, owned by the Corporation, 
half-a-mile outside the Borough boundary, has at present 
an area of thirteen acres, with room for further extensions 
up to twenty-eight acres. It was opened in April, 1889. 

2. —Towcester Road Cemetery, opened in March, 1902, is 
also owned by the Corporation. It is a quarter of a mile outside 
the Town and covers fifty-four acres, the area of the portion 
enclosed for interments being eighteen and a quarter acres. 
There is thus ample ground for all requirements for many years. 

3. —-The General Cemetery in Billing Road is owned by a 
company. It was formed in July, 1847, and added to in 1882, 
and covers about thirteen acres. There is no available land 
for the extension of this burial ground, as it is built up all 
round. 

During the night of 22nd-23rd April, there were re-interred 
in Towcester Road Cemetery the bodies of seven persons, 
who had been buried between 1878 and 1914 within the pre¬ 
cincts of Northampton Gaol on The Mounts. The bodies 
were exhumed and re-buried in accordance with the require¬ 
ments of the Home Office. The gaol has been demolished 
and the site allotted to the new municipal buildings. 

The Medical Officer of Health, the Assistant School Medical 
Officer, and the sanitary inspectors have kept the sanitary 
condition of the schools under their purview during the year. 
While some (in fact most) of the older schools of the Town 
are a long way from reaching the ideal of modern require¬ 
ments, according to the view of the Board of Education, none 
of them are in such a condition as to structure or sanitary 
defects as to be dangerous or injurious to the health of the 


Tents, Vans, 
Sheds, etc, 


Premises 
Controlled 
by Bye¬ 
laws, etc. 


Disposal of 
the Dead 


Schools 


24 


Rag Flock 
Acts, 1911 
and 1928 


Rat 

Repression 


Council 

Houses 


Other New 
Buildings 


scholars attending them. These schools could not be made 
comparable with the new ones and as they arc mostly situated 
in the older central parts of the Borough, from which families 
are migrating to the outskirts, some of them will eventually 
become redundant. All are supplied by Town water and the 
closet accommodation is adequate. 

There have been no epidemics of infectious disease during 
the year under survey, consequently the question of closing 
any school in order to prevent the spread of disease did not 
arise. In any case such measures are not favoured in these 
days; the exclusion of contacts and keeping them under obser¬ 
vation during the incubation period of the particular disease 
is more effective and causes less disturbance to the school 
curriculum. 

All the schools erected since the war are on open-air lines ; 
for all practical purposes they are open-air schools. 


There are a few premises in the Borough where rag flock 
is used in the manufacture of low-priced furniture. These 
were visited by the Chief Sanitary Inspector on seventeen 
occasions and on each visit the invoices were examined to 
ascertain if they contained the guarantee that the flock reached 
the standard prescribed in the Acts, and as the guarantees 
were forthcoming no samples were taken. 


The Chief Sanitary Inspector, the official Rat Officer, 
supervised the work of the Borough Rat-catcher, who con¬ 
tinued to be at the service of any ratepayer requiring his help, 
irrespective of “ Rat Weeks.” Table 8, on page 83, shews the 
result of his efforts. 


IV.—HOUSING. 

The Borough Engineer has again supplied the Depart¬ 
ment with particulars of the progress made under the muni¬ 
cipal housing schemes :— 

Total number of houses completed between 1st 
January and 31st December, 1931, under the 


Corporation Schemes . 230 

Number of these within the Borough boundary . . 202 

Total number of houses erected by the Corporation 
both inside and outside the Borough up to 31st 
December, 1931 :—- 

Houses . 2,770 

Shops and houses . 32 


In addition to the above, the following private building 
operations, plans for which had been approved by the Highways 





25 


Committee, were carried out within the Borough during the 
year :—- 


New houses . 

Alterations and additions to dwellinghouses 

Shops and houses . 

Alterations and additions to shops . 

New shop with flats over. 

Conversion of houses into flats . 

Shop-fronts to dwellinghouses . 

N ew bakehouse . 

Re-building of factory after fire . 

Extensions to factories. 

Extensions to warehouses . 

New offices and buildings . 

Alterations and additions to places of worship 

Additions to hospitals . 

Extension to brewery . 

Alterations and additions to licensed premises 

Extensions and alterations to clubs . 

Alterations and additions to cinemas . 

Extension to pavilion on sports ground 
Garages . 


158 

15 

5 

12 

1 

2 

9 

1 

1 

3 
5 
5 

4 
2 
1 
8 
2 
2 
1 

70 


Garages (temporarily licensed) . 6 

Electric light sub-stations . 7 

New water closets . 8 

Other temporarily licensed buildings. 5 


Tables 9 and 10 (pages 84 and 85) contain particulars of 
houses represented in 1931 and previous years. It will be 
seen that thirteen dwellinghouses were represented by the 
Medical Officer of Health during the year, under Section 19 
of the Housing Act, 1930, because they appeared to be in a 
state so dangerous or injurious to health as to be unfit for 
human habitation and were not considered capable of being 
rendered fit at a reasonable expense. Twenty-nine demolition 
orders were made ; twelve of these were under the 1925 Act 
and seventeen under the 1930 Act. Twenty houses were 
demolished in pursuance of demolition orders and four after 
closing orders only. The demolition of three other houses was 
in progress at the end of December, another was converted into 
a garage, two were repaired, and four others were allowed 
to stand empty on the owner undertaking that they would not 
be used again for human habitation. Only five represented 
houses were still occupied when the year closed. 

No houses were dealt with under Section 17 of the Housing 
Act, 1930. In the case of the five houses in Castle Gardens 
mentioned on page 27 of my last report, the work has been 
completed. 

The staff made 842 visits of house-to-house inspection 
under the Housing Consolidated Regulations, 1925, and in 


Housing 

Acts 























26 


Slum 

Clearance 


Public 

Health 

Acts 


Prose¬ 

cutions 


Sufficiency 
of Supply 
of Houses 


these defects were found in 481, chiefly want of cleanlines 
and repairs. 

As mentioned on pages 31 and 32 of my report of 1930, 
the Town Council adopted a five years’ programme of slum 
clearance under the Housing Act, 1930, and the following 
progress had been made up to the end of 1931 :—- 

No. 1 Clearance Area (Grafton Street Area) was officially 
represented to the Housing Committee by the Medical Officer 
of Health on 12th January, 1931, and this was adopted by the 
Town Council on 26th January. A list of persons interested in 
the property in the area was supplied to the Town Clerk by the 
Public Health Department. The Council made a Compulsory 
Purchase Order and on 16th June a public inquiry was held 
at the Town Hall by R. W. Thorpe, Esq., A.R.I.B.A., on 
behalf of the Ministry of Health. The Compulsory Purchase 
Order was confirmed by the Ministry on 5th August with slight 
modifications resulting from the public inquiry, viz :—three 
properties were to be treated as property to be acquired by the 
Council under Section 3 of the Housing Act, 1930. Included 
in the area were fifty-four houses occupied by fifty-three 
families comprising 221 persons, or a little over four persons 
per house. The number of families re-housed in Corporation 
houses up to 31st December, 1931, was seventeen and up to 
that date one other family had moved to a house privately owned. 

At the time of writing (April, 1932), all have been re¬ 
housed and the work of demolition nearly completed. No. 2 
Clearance Area (Sc.arletwell Street Area) has now been taken 
in hand. 

Two houses, or parts of houses, were certified by the Medical 
Officer of Health under the terms of Section 46 of the Public 
Health Act, 1875, as being in such a filthy or unwholesome 
condition that the health of the occupants was affected or 
endangered thereby, and that the cleansing and whitewashing 
were urgently required. Notices were served and the work 
done. 

Apart from legal proceedings under the Food and Drugs 
(Adulteration) Act, 1928, detailed in the paragraph dealing 
with that subject on page 34, it was not necessary to take 
legal action against any person to enforce compliance with 
notices under the Public Health or Housing Acts. 

In spite of the number of houses built in Northampton 
since the war (chiefly by the Council) and the small increase 
in the population, there still appears to be a considerable 
demand for houses of the smaller and cheaper type. With 
the continued trade depression this call for cheaper houses 
with lower rents will become greater, for while it is possible 


27 


to pay the high rents asked for Council houses when the head 
of the family is in full work, the pinch is quickly felt during 
periods of short time or unemployment. It is for this reason 
a move should be made to build cheaper houses for the working- 
classes. 

No marked increase of overcrowding came to our notice Over- 
during the year, the number of actual cases remaining much crowding 
the same throughout the twelve months. Seven cases were 
abated and eleven new ones were added to the list and sixteen 
overcrowded houses remained at the end of the year. There 
are at least three methods of estimating overcrowding, but the 
standard adopted in the Borough is that overcrowding is con¬ 
sidered to exist if the sleeping accommodation does not provide 
at least three hundred cubic feet of air space per person over the 
age of ten years, or half that amount under ten years. No legal 
action was taken in any instance of overcrowding. 

The particulars for 1931 are set out below in the form Housing 

Statistics 


1,863 
1,863 


642 

642 


13 


1,109 


451 


0 


0 

0 


required by the Ministry of Health :— 

1. —Inspection of Dwellinghouses. 

(1) (a) Total number of dwellinghouses inspected 

for housing defects (under Public Health or 

Housing Acts) . 

[h) Number of inspections made for the purpose 

(2) («) Number of dwellinghouses (included under 

sub-head (1) above) inspected and recorded 
under the Housing Consolidated Regula¬ 
tions, 1925 . 

Ib ) Number of inspections made for the purpose 

(3) Number of dwellinghouses found to be in a state 

so dangerous or injurious to health as to be 
unfit for human habitation . 

(4) Number of dwellinghouses (exclusive of those 

referred to under the preceding sub-head) 
found not to be in all respects reasonably fit 
for human habitation. 

2. — Remedy of Defects withoiit Service of Formal Notices. 

Number of defective dwellinghouses rendered fit in 
consequence of informal action by the Local 
Authority or their officers . 

3. — Action under Statutory Powers. 

A.—-Proceedings under Sections 17, 18, and 23 
of the Housing Act, 1930 :—- 

(1) N umber of dwellinghouses in respect of which 
notices were served requiring repairs .... 

(2) Number of dwellinghouses rendered fit 
after service of formal notices :■—- 

{a) By owners . 

{b) By Local Authority in default of 
owners 









28 


B. —Proceedings under Public Health Acts :— 

(1) Number of dwellinghouses in respect of 
which notices were served requiring defects 

to be remedied . 662 

(2) Number of dwellinghouses in which defects 
were remedied after service of formal 
notices :—- 

(a) By owners . 595 

(b) By Local Authority in default of 

owners. 0 

C. —Proceedings under Sections 19 and 21 of the 
Housing Act, 1930 :—- 

(1) Number of dwellinghouses in respect of 

which Demolition Orders were made .... 17 

(2) Number of dwellinghouses demolished in 

pursuance of Demolition Orders . 10 


D.—Proceedings under Section 20 of the 
Housing Act, 1930 :—- 
(1) Number of separate tenements or under¬ 
ground rooms in respect of which Closing 


Orders were made . 0 

(2) Number of separate tenements or under¬ 
ground rooms in respect of which Closing 
Orders were determined, the tenement or 
room having been rendered fit. 0 

E. —Proceedings under Section 3 of the 
Housing Act, 1925 :— 

(1) Number of dwellinghouses in respect of 

which notices were served requiring repairs 0 

(2) Number of dwellinghouses rendered fit 
after service of formal notices :— 

(a) By owners . 0 

(b) By Local Authority in default of 

owners . 0 

(3) Number of dwellinghouses in respect of 

which Closing Orders became operative in 
pursuance of declarations by owners of 
intention to close .. 0 

F. —Proceedings under Sections 11, 14, and 15 
of the Housing Act, 1925 :— 

(1) Number of dwellinghouses in respect of 

which Closing Orders were made. 0 

(2) Number of dwellinghouses in respect of 

which Closing Orders were determined, the 
houses having been rendered fit . 0 

(3) Number of dwellinghouses in respect of 

which Demolition Orders were made .... 12 

(4) Number of dwellinghouses demolished in 

pursuance of Demolition Orders . 10* 


* Four more dwellinghouses were demolished in pursuance of Closing 
Orders only. 














29 


Reference should be made to Section III. “ Sanitary 
Circumstances ” for other information bearing on housing. 

The estimated number of inhabited houses in the Borough 
on 31st December, 1931, was 23,950. 


V.—INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION OF FOOD. 

The bulk of the Town's milk supply comes in from the 
surrounding country, only eighty-two cows being housed in 
the Borough during the winter months and turned out to grass 
late in the spring. The premises of registered producers are 
kept under supervision by the sanitary inspectors, with 
occasional visits by the Medical Officer of Health, to ensure 
they are kept in a clean condition. 

It is estimated that slightly less than half the milk con¬ 
sumed in the Town is “ Pasteurised ” before sale, about five 
per cent, is “ Grade A (Tuberculin Tested),” and one per cent, 
sterilised. 

The report on the chemical examination of milk by the 
Public Analyst will be found on page 34 under the heading 
dealing with the Food and Drugs (Adulteration) Act, 1928. 

The scheme of supplying school children with one-third 
of a pint of “ Pasteurised ” milk in a bottle, together with a 
straw for taking the milk, at the price of one penny per bottle, 
reached its height in early summer when 27,594 bottles were 
supplied in one week, the number of scholars taking the milk 
was 5,519 out of 12,345 on the registers. Since then there has 
been a falling off, most marked when colder weather came. 
Up to the end of the year the scheme had been self-supporting, 
but whether it will continue on those happy lines one cannot 
say. 


On 10th November the Town Council appointed Mr. T. G. 
Marriott, M.R.C.V.S., as Veterinary Inspector under the 
Tuberculosis Order, 1925. Mr. Marriott has arranged to 
inspect all the dairy cows kept in the Borough twice annually 
with a view to detecting any suffering from tuberculosis. He 
will, when necessary, take samples of milk from any suspected 
cow for examination for the presence of the tubercle bacillus. 
If any tuberculous cows are found they will be slaughtered. 
Reports as to the results of the examinations will be forwarded 
to the Medical Officer of Health to be brought before the Public 
Health Committee at its monthly meetings. This action is 
in addition to the taking of samples from retailers in the street 
for examination for tubercle bacilli. 

Five specimens of milk were examined by inoculation 
tests for the presence of tubercle bacilli, but none were found. 
One of these samples was taken by Mr. Marriott. 


Other 

Housing 

Matters 


Milk 

Supply 


Milk in 
Schools 


Tuber¬ 

culosis 

Order, 

1925 


30 


Dairies, 

Cowsheds, 

and 

Milkshops 


Sterilised 

Milk 


Milk 

(Special 

Designa¬ 

tions) 

Order, 

1923 


At the end of December, eleven cowkeepers, 175 retail 
dairymen, and five wholesalers were on the register. Twenty- 
four of these retailers live in the country districts around 
the Town and their premises were inspected by the rural 
authorities and pronounced fit for the purpose before they 
were placed on our register. In addition, 109 persons are 
allowed to sell milk in bottles only, on condition the seal of the 
bottle is intact when it leaves the premises. These are persons 
whose premises are not considered suitable for the sale of loose 
milk. Seventeen certificates of registration were issued, all 
but one being transfers. The inspectors made 472 visits to 
registered premises and defects were found and remedied in 
fifteen of them. 


The demand for sterilised milk remains much as in previous 
years. Seventy-five retailers and two wholesalers are per¬ 
mitted to distribute it. 


At the end of 1931, the following licences under this Order 
were in operation :—- 

Dealers’ licences to use the designation “ Grade A (Tuber¬ 
culin Tested) ” :— 

(a) bottling establishments . 3 

(b) shops. 7 

Dealers’ licences to use the designation “ Pasteurised ” :— 

(a) Pasteurising establishments . 2 

( b ) shop . 1 

These licences were held by ten dairymen. 

There is no appreciable demand in the Borough for “ Certi¬ 
fied ” milk and no licence to sell under the designation was 
issued. 

Thirty-eight samples of milk were taken for bacteriological 
examination, viz:—fifteen “Grade A (Tuberculin Tested)”, 
eight “ Pasteurised ” sold as such, two “ Pasteurised ” sold 
in bottles as ordinary milk, four ordinary milk in bottles, eight 
ordinary loose milk purchased in the street or from a dairy, 
and one sterilised milk. 

Of the designated milks, only one failed to reach the 
standard prescribed in the Order, viz :—specimen No. 155, 
a “ Grade A (Tuberculin Tested) ” milk, which was found to 
contain coliform organisms in Q'01 c.c., whereas they should 
have been absent in that amount. In spite of this default 
the total number of organisms per c.c. in this sample was only 
1,900, a very low count. The average bacterial count of the 
other fourteen “ Grade A (Tuberculin Tested) ” samples was 
7,523, the highest 36,000 and the lowest 210 per c.c. All 
the eight “ Pasteurised ” milks complied with the requirements 
of the Order, the average number of organisms per c.c. being 
15,650. 






31 


One of the “ Pasteurised ” sold as ordinary milk con¬ 
tained 268,000 bacteria per ex., but coliform organisms were 
absent from 1 c.c. The other contained 6,400 organisms per 
c.c. and coli were found in 0'1 cx. The average count of the 
twelve ordinary milks was 65,717 per c.c., the highest 396,000 
and the lowest 1,500. From the coliform standard the worst 
contained these bacteria in (F0001 c.c. The sterilised sample 
again came near to living up to its name, as it only contained 
ten organisms per c.c. and coli were absent from 1 c.c. 

As far as one is able to infer from the bacteriological 
examination of ordinary milk, as distinct from designated, 
I am led to believe that the milk business in the Borough is 
conducted with reasonable care as to cleanliness, etc. No 
examinations were made as to the sediment in any of the milk 
samples, but as dirt and bacteria are almost synonymous 
terms as far as milk is concerned, we may safely assume that 
where the bacterial count is low there is little dirt present, in 
other words, a low count shews a clean milk. The chemical 
examinations (see page 34) reveal that with few exceptions 
the milk supply of the Borough is above the standard laid 
down by the Sale of Milk Regulations, 1901. 

Twenty-three samples of designated milk were sent to the 
Public Analyst for chemical analysis and one (a specimen of 
“ Grade A (Tuberculin Tested) ” milk) failed to reach the 
standard, as it contained only 2’96 per cent, of milk-fat in 
stead of not less than 3‘0 per cent. The average contents 
of the remaining twenty-two designated milks were as follow :—- 

MILK-FAT. NON-FATTY SOLIDS. 

“ Grade A (Tuberculin 3'98 per cent. 9‘03 per cent. 

Tested) 

(fourteen samples) 

“ Pasteurised ” 3‘56 per cent. 8'82 per cent. 

(eight samples) 

No legal proceedings were necessary under the Public 
Health (Preservatives, etc., in Food) Regulations, 1925 to 
1927, as all official samples examined by the Analyst were 
found to be free from preservatives. An informal sample of 
sausages, however, was found to contain 220 parts per million 
of sulphur dioxide ; these should have been labelled preserved. 
As stated in a previous report, I think there is very little 
adulteration of food in Northampton. 

No action was taken under the Artificial Cream Act, 
1929, the Public Health (Condensed Milk) Regulations, 1923 
and 1927, or the Public Health (Dried Milk) Regulations, 1923 
and 1927. 

No change was made in the arrangements for food in¬ 
spection, which include the inspection of meat, slaughterhouses, 
shops, stalls, and places where food is prepared or sold, which 


Preserva¬ 
tives, etc. 


Food 

Inspection 


32 


Grading 

and 

Marking of 
Foodstuffs 

Slaughter¬ 

houses 


Public 

Health 

(Meat) 

Regulations, 

1924 


Disease 
in Meat 


Section 117 
of the 
Public 
Health 
Act, 1875 


have been working satisfactorily for many years. Tables 
11, 12, and 13 (pages 86 and 87) give particulars of food con¬ 
demned and are summaries of the reports submitted by the 
Medical Officer of Health at the monthly meetings of the Public 
Health Committee. 

The inspectors continue to carry out the duties imposed 
by the Merchandise Marks Act, 1926, and the Agricultural 
Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1928. 

The number of slaughterhouses on the register is the same 
as in the previous year, viz :—fifty-four, of which forty-nine 
were registered or licensed before the adoption of Part III. of 
the Public Health Acts Amendment Act, 1890, and these 
cannot be easily got rid of. The remaining five are on yearly 
licences renewable each January. 

The inspectors made 3,854 visits of inspection during the 
year, 3,619 being during the actual process of slaughtering. 
Thirty-six infringements of the bye-laws were discovered ; 
these were of a minor character, chiefly of failure to white¬ 
wash at the proper time. All were remedied without having 
to resort to legal action. 

These Regulations were made to enable meat inspectors 
to keep a closer observation on slaughtered animals, as they 
impose upon the butcher, amongst other things, the obligation 
of informing the Local Authority of intention to slaughter out 
of the usual hours. Three hours' notice must be given, except 
in case of accident. 209 notices were received during the 
year. No prosecutions were necessary, but several letters of 
warning were sent when breaches of the Regulations were 
discovered. 

Table 14 (page 87) gives particulars regarding tuberculosis 
found in slaughtered animals. As in former years, calves and 
sheep only constitute a small proportion of the total findings, 
but 57'3 per cent, of whole and 97‘8 per cent, of part carcases 
of beef and pork condemned were surrendered on account of 
being affected with tuberculosis. While it is right and proper 
that such meat should be condemned, 1 doubt if tuberculous 
meat even if consumed would be as dangerous as milk con¬ 
taining tubercle bacilli, seeing that meat is seldom consumed 
in the raw state, whereas milk frequently is. 

Three seizures of unsound meat were made during the 
year, viz :—a head of pork shewing tuberculous glands was 
seized in a butcher’s shop, having been brought from out of 
town the same morning. The inspector ascertained the names 
of two other butchers who had been supplied with pork from the 
same source and on visiting their premises he found pork offal 


33 


with signs of tuberculosis, and these were also seized. The 
total weight seized and condemned by a magistrate was 12 lbs. 
6 ozs. and was presumed to be part of the same carcase. The 
matter was reported to the Executive Committee of the Public 
Health Committee with a view to legal proceedings being 
taken, but the Committee decided that letters of warning be 
sent to the occupiers of the three shops and to the butcher 
who supplied the meat. 

All other meat condemned was either found by the in¬ 
spectors at the time of slaughter or the inspector’s attention 
was called to it by the butcher, who was willing to accept the 
officer’s decision. The local butchers have amongst themselves 
an arrangement for contributing to a common fund out of 
which they receive compensation for diseased carcases or parts 
of such as are voluntarily surrendered, on the certificate of the 
inspector, and this has done much to help us in keeping the 
meat supply sound. 

At the end of December, 101 bakehouses were in use. The 
inspectors paid 272 visits of inspection and found thirty- 
seven infringements of the bye-laws (none of them very serious) 
the chief delinquency being a failure to whitewash at the 
proper time, viz :—every six months. All breaches of the 
Act were rectified on representation being made to the occupier. 

Under this heading come premises other than those already 
mentioned where food is dealt with, including those connected 
with the manufacture and storage of potted meats, jams, 
sweets, ice cream, etc. The ice cream business, so far as it is 
carried on by small dealers under unsatisfactory conditions, 
has fallen on evil times of late years, as owing to bad seasons 
and the competition of large out-of-town firms conducting 
their business on scientific lines, a good many of the erstwhile 
little traders have had to retire. 1,311 visits of inspection 
were paid to these premises. 

No case of suspected food poisoning was brought to the 
notice of the Department. 

No bacteriological examination of food (other than milk) 
was carried out, as none was required. The examination of 
milk was performed at the Pathological Laboratory of the 
Northampton General Hospital and at the Lister Institute 
of Preventive Medicine. 

A]] chemical analysis required by the Local Authority 
is performed by the Public Analyst to the Borough, Mr. A. 
Prideaux Davson, A.R.C.Sc. (Lond.), L.I.C., L.C.S., of Ber¬ 
mondsey. 


Bake¬ 

houses 


Other 
Premises 
dealing with 
Food 


Food 

Poisoning 

Bacterio¬ 

logical 

Work 


Chemical 

Work 


34 


Nutrition 


Food and 
Drugs 
(Adultera¬ 
tion) Act, 
1928 


No steps were taken for the dissemination of knowledge 
regarding nutrition and the relative values of foods. 

274 samples (including 103 informal) were taken under 
this Act by the sanitary inspectors and submitted to the Public 
Analyst. The nature of these samples is given in detail in 
Table 15 (page 88). Twenty (7*3 per cent.) were found not 
to be genuine. Nine of these were taken informally and 
consequently no legal action could be taken regarding them. 
The steps taken in the case of the eleven defaulting official 
samples (all milks) were as follow :—- 

No. 42 was deficient in milk-fat to the extent of T3 per cent. 
On instructions from the Executive Committee of the Public 
Health Committee a warning letter was sent to the vendor. 

No. 127 was 33 per cent, deficient in milk-fat. The 
vendor was cautioned. 

No. 142 shewed a deficiency in milk-fat of l'O per cent. 
Warned. 

No. 169 was deficient in milk-fat to the extent of 18 0 
per cent. Proceedings were stayed when it was learnt that a 
previous sample, taken by an officer of the Northants. County 
Council, direct from the cows, was found to be 179 per cent, 
deficient in fat. Three informal samples taken direct from the 
cows were found to be 5‘3, 6‘3, and 16'3 per cent, deficient in 
milk-fat. Two further official samples (Nos. 187 and 218) 
were taken and found to be 5'7 and 9*0 per cent, deficient in 
milk-fat respectively. These were followed by two more 
informal samples (one direct from the cows), which were 2*0 
and 4*7 per cent, deficient in milk-fat. The Medical Officer 
of Health here wrote to the vendor telling him he must take 
steps to bring his milk up to standard and further samples 
would be taken. He was advised to get into touch with the 
experts at the County Council farm at Moulton, who would 
instruct him in feeding, etc. of his stock. 

No. 171 was found to contain P3 per cent, of added water. 
Vendor was warned. 

No. 173 contained 2‘6 per cent, of added water and was 
2*7 deficient in milk-fat. Proceedings were taken, but the 
case was dismissed, as the Bench were of the opinion the milk 
was sold in the same condition as it was when given by the 
cow. 

No. 236 contained 148 per cent, of added water, but here 
again the Bench considered the milk had not been tampered 
with and the case was dismissed. 

No. 237 was found to contain added water to the extent 
of 2’2 per cent. Cautioned. 

No. 262 contained 7‘4 per cent, of added water. Vendor 
was fined £\. 

One sample of skim milk had a fat content of 0‘42 per 

cent. 


35 


All milks submitted to the Public Analyst were examined 
for the presence of preservatives, but none were detected. 

The average fat content of the 159 samples of genuine 
milk was 3*71 per cent, and the non-fatty solids 8*92 per cent. 
Some of these were designated milks (see page 31). 


VI.—PREVALENCE OF, AND CONTROL OVER, 
INFECTIOUS AND OTHER DISEASES. 


During 1931, twenty-two deaths were certified as due to the 
so-called “ zymotic diseases,” giving a “ zymotic death-rate ” 
of 0*24 per thousand living, as follows :—- 


NUMBER DEATH- 


OF DEATHS. 

Diarrhoea (under two years) .... 7 


Diphtheria . 4 

Enteric Fever . 0 

Measles . 9 

Scarlet Fever . 0 

Smallpox . 0 

Whooping Cough . 2 


RATE. 

0-08 

004 

o-oo 

0T0 

o-oo 

o-oo 

0-02 


These diseases not being notifiable under the Infectious 
Disease (Notification) Act, 1889, our knowledge of their in¬ 
cidence is not so complete as it is regarding the notifiable ones, 
but from the weekly returns furnished by head teachers of 
public elementary schools and information kindly supplied by 
Dr. Mason, the Assistant School Medical Officer, measles and 
whooping cough do not appear to have been very prevalent. 
Both are amongst the most highly infectious of common 
diseases and are endemic in all towns, but 1 do not think they 
have for many years existed in Northampton in such epidemic 
form as they frequently do in some of the industrial towns 
further north, where they often exact a big toll on infantile 
life. In one town about three times the size of Northampton 
one hundred deaths were attributed to measles during 1930. 
I think one of the reasons (and it may be the chief) for our 
escape from such a state of affairs is the comparative absence 
of slums and overcrowding in the Borough and the poverty 
which always goes with these conditions. 

The number of cases of suspected measles reported was 
698 and nine deaths were certified as due to that disease, giving a 
death-rate of 0T0 per thousand living, as against 0*08 for 
England and Wales. Two deaths were certified as due to whoop¬ 
ing cough and sixty cases were recorded on the school returns. 
The death-rate was CK)2, compared with (b06 for the country. 

Owing to the few cases of complicated measles which 
occur in Northampton it has not been the practice to treat 
measles cases in Harborough Road Hospital, but in view of the 
small number of admissions for scarlet fever and diphtheria 


“ Zymotic 
Deaths ” 


Measles and 

Whooping 

Cough 








36 


Diarrhoea 

and 

Enteritis 


Influenza 


Cerebro¬ 

spinal 

Fever 


Acute 

Polio¬ 

myelitis 


Encephalitis 

Lethargica 


Enterica 


and of the wish of the Ministry of Health that better provision 
should be made for the treatment of complicated cases of 
measles, it is proposed to admit such to the Isolation Hospital 
on the request of the parents or the medical practitioner in 
attendance. 

Seven deaths were certified as due to these diseases in 
children under two years of age, giving a rate of 5'7 per 
thousand live births registered, as against 6*0 for England 
and Wales. As stated in former reports, these diseases do 
not figure so prominently amongst the causes of death as they 
did at the beginning of the present century. 

The year 1931 will not be known as an influenza year. I 
cannot remember hearing, or reading in the public press, less 
about influenza since the pandemic of 1918. Our records, 
however, disclose that there were twenty-three deaths classi¬ 
fied to this disease, giving a death-rate of 0‘25, compared with 
036 for England and Wales. The deaths chiefly occurred 
during the months of February, March, and April. 

There were no notifications received, but a man aged 
thirty-four years was certified (after post-mortem examination) 
as having died from that disease, which is rare in Northampton. 

One notification of acute anterior poliomyelitis (infantile 
paralysis) was received, referring to an illegitimate child, aged 
ten weeks. He was admitted to the General Hospital and made 
as good progress as could be expected and was later transferred 
to the Wellingborough Road Institution along with his mother. 
I am doubtful if the original diagnosis was a correct one. 

Two cases of encephalitis lethargica were notified, but in 
my opinion the clinical evidence was not sufficient to justify 
the diagnosis in either of them. One, a woman aged fifty- 
seven, shewed marked signs of cerebral haemorrhage ; this 
case ended fatally. The other was a child, aged eight years, 
who to all appearances made a complete recovery. In 
addition, a youth, aged seventeen, died from post-encephalitis 
lethargica after an illness lasting over three months. 

Nine cases (eight typhoids and one paratyphoid) were notified 
as suffering from enterica, but one of these was found to be a 
mistaken diagnosis and one was from the County but not 
notified previous to admission to the General Hospital, thus 
leaving seven Borough cases. One of the seven (the para¬ 
typhoid) was a nurse employed at the General Hospital the 
remaining six being residents of the Kingsthorpe end of the 
Town. Their ages ranged from just under five to nineteen 
years and all whose blood was examined suffered from typhoid. 


37 


The first of the Kingsthorpe group occurred in three boys, 
members of one family, living together at Green End, and 
these were all notified and removed to hospital on 24th July. 

Four days later two further notifications were received from 
the General Hospital, one relating to another Kingsthorpe 
boy who was admitted to that institution ten days earlier and 
the other a young woman residing in the old part of Kings¬ 
thorpe. On 6th August notification was received in con¬ 
nection with a boy, aged seven, living in a street off the Har- 
borough Road. From the histories received and the clinical 
signs and symptoms, all these patients seem to have been 
infected about the same time, and the only thing common to 
all of them which might give rise to suspicion was the fact 
that all had consumed water from “ Jubilee Well ” on Kings¬ 
thorpe Green. It will be remembered that this water had 
been under suspicion in 1929 and 1930, but we were never able 
actually to prove it was contaminated, whilst at times it reached 
a high standard of purity. A sample was examined by the 
Bacteriologist on 28th July, i.e., the day the second batch of 
cases was notified, when he stated—Bacteriologically this is 
a very good sample of water.” A sample taken at the same 
time was sent to the Public Analyst and was regarded as 
reasonably safe for drinking purposes. Not feeling satisfied 
or re-assured by these good bacteriological and chemical 
reports and suspecting that the trouble was only intermittent, 
we took another sample for bacteriological examination on 
17th August, which shewed evidence of contamination. A 
further sample taken on 2nd September “ still shewed evidence 
of contamination of the type present in the previous sample 
examined.” Armed with this information the Local Authority 
applied to the magistrates for an order to close the well for 
twelve months under Section 70 of the Public Health Act, 1875. 

The application was granted and the well was closed by being 
diverted into the sewer. No hardship was caused to any 
person by the closure of the well as all the houses in the vicinity, 
which formerly obtained their supply from the “ Jubilee 
Well,” had the Town’s supply laid on by order of the Council 
in 1930 and 1931, as mentioned in my last report, page 41. 

People non-resident in the Borough may wonder why, if the 
well was shewn to be so polluted at times as to be dangerous 
to health, it was only proposed to close it for twelve months ; 
residents who followed the correspondence in the local press 
will understand the reason for this time limit. All the typhoid 
patients made uninterrupted recoveries and up to the time of 
writing we have had no further cases. 

The attack-rate for the Borough was 0*10 and there were 
no deaths. For England and Wales the attack-rate was 
(LOG and the death-rate 001. 

Forty-two notifications of erysipelas were received, which Erysipelas 




38 


Chickenpox 


Vaccination 


is ten less than in 1930. The attack-rate for Northampton 
was 045 and for England and Wales 0*38. Two deaths were 
attributed to this disease, one being in an unnotified person. 


Chickenpox is not at present notifiable in the Borough, 
so our knowledge of its incidence is not very complete. Over 
three hundred cases were reported from the public elementary 
schools. It is endemic and very little trouble is taken by many 
parents to prevent its spread. One death was ascribed to this 
cause. 


The number of successful vaccinations performed in the 
Borough remains much the same from year to year. About 
ten per cent, of the infants born in the Town are successfully 
vaccinated. The great majority of the remaining ninety 
per cent, are excused from the operation owing to the parents 
obtaining an exemption certificate from the magistrates. 

There is at present a movement afoot in medical circles 
to have compulsory vaccination abolished, but to retain 
facilities for optional vaccination for those who wish it. Some 
even go so far as to suggest more vaccinations would be per¬ 
formed under the voluntary system than under the so-called 
compulsory one. I do not think it would make much difference 
either way in a town like Northampton, where only some ten 
per cent, of infants are protected. There would probably be 
still fewer undergo the operation, but there will always be a 
certain percentage of the population who will seek protection 
from smallpox for their children and themselves through 
vaccination, and if the virulent type of smallpox comes amongst 
us there will probably be a rush for vaccination when it is too 
late. The voluntary system would be much more easily 
worked than the cumbersome method now in vogue. 

As might be expected, the transfer of the Vaccination 
Officers and Public Vaccinators from the Board of Guardians 
to the Public Health Department did not increase the number 
of vaccinations performed. The three Public Vaccinators for 
the Borough are :— 

Dr. E. Robertson, 220, Kettering Road ; 

Dr. J. Cullen, 8, Langham Place ; 

Dr. H. F. Percival, 2, Spencer Parade. 

These officers cover for vaccination purposes the same 
areas they serve for medical out-relief. 

The Medical Officer of the Wellingborough Road Insti¬ 
tution also acts as vaccinator. 

There are two vaccination officers, viz :—Mr. F. Taylor 
and Mr. R. Bennett. 

In 1931, no vaccinations were performed by the Medical 
Officer of Health under the Public Health (Smallpox Pre¬ 
vention) Regulations, 1917, 


39 


There were eight cases of smallpox, whose ages ranged Smallpox 
from seven to forty-nine years. Only one had been vaccinated, 
viz :—a man forty-nine years of age, vaccinated in infancy. 

The attack-rate was 0'09, compared with (H4 for England 
and Wales. 

The first cases, two children—brother and sister—aged 
nine and seven years respectively, occurred in January. In¬ 
vestigation shewed they had slept for one night at a house in 
Leicester, where smallpox was present, at Christmas, 1930. 

Though the father knew of the presence of smallpox in the 
house, he did not inform us the children were contacts (nor 
were the Leicester authorities informed) and it was not until 
one of them was found at the School Clinic to be suffering from 
smallpox that we were aware the disease was again in the 
Town. It is rather remarkable that though both children 
were at school while in an infective condition there was no 
spread to other scholars. The third case was the aunt of the 
above children, with whom she had been in contact before 
realising the nature of their ailment. The fourth was the 
daughter of No. 3, also a contact of Nos. 1 and 2. 

No more cases occurred until the end of February, when 
a boy, aged seven, was found to be suffering from a mild attack 
of smallpox. He was removed to hospital and the family 
kept under observation, when seventeen days later his father, 
aged forty-nine, and brother, aged twenty-two, were found to 
be suffering from this disease, and five days later still his 
sister, aged ten, also fell with it. We were never able to dis¬ 
cover where this outbreak originated, but as the disease was 
very prevalent in Leicester and the surrounding villages at the 
time, and considering the intercommunication between that 
city and Northampton, especially at week-ends, it is probable 
the infection was brought from that neighbourhood. 

All were treated in the Smallpox Hospital at Hardingstone 
and made quick recoveries, the type of disease being very mild 
in every instance, which was not so in the 1928-1929 outbreak. 

165 notifications of scarlet fever were received (being Scarlet 
fifty-four fewer than in 1930, and the smallest number for Fever 
ten years) giving an attack-rate of L78, compared with 2‘05 
for England and Wales. Ninety-nine cases were removed to 
Harborough Road Infectious Diseases Hospital and fifteen 
of these were found, after a period of observation, not to be 
suffering from scarlet fever. Most of the admissions to hospital 
were of the mild type, so prevalent during recent years. There 
were few complications of a serious nature. One patient, 
aged nineteen, who had previously suffered from rheumatic 
fever, which had damaged the heart, had a recurrence of this 
condition—a not uncommon complication in such cases— 
and the heart was further damaged. On discharge she left 
the Town to reside in the north and the last time we heard from. 


40 


Diphtheria 


her she was confined to bed with heart trouble. One child, 
aged seven, developed pneumonia with empyema and was 
removed to the General Hospital for operation. There were 
four cases of middle ear disease, but all cleared up before 
discharge. 

The Ministry of Health are not so keen on the isolation of 
cases of scarlet fever in hospital as were their predecessors 
the Local Government Board. The type of disease has changed 
so much during the last twenty-five years, the need for actual 
nursing is not so great as formerly, but there is no reason to 
believe that a mild case of scarlet fever cannot pass on the 
disease to other members of the family, if not effectually 
isolated either at home or in hospital, and in many working- 
class families the former expedient is well nigh impossible. 
No case where the parents or the medical practitioner concerned 
desired removal was refused. 

No deaths occurred from scarlet fever. The death-rate 
for England and Wales was OOl. 

There were eighty-three notifications of diphtheria, which 
is less than a third of those received in 1930. The attack-rate 
for the Borough was 0'89 and for England and Wales T27. 
Seventy of the cases (including two transferred from the 
General Hospital) were removed to the Borough Infectious 
Diseases Hospital and eleven of them were found to be not 
suffering from diphtheria. Three were removed to the 
General Hospital owing to the possibility of tracheotomy 
being required. Two of these were subsequently transferred 
to the Borough Hospital to complete recovery, one after 
tracheotomy ; the other did not require operation. The 
third of those admitted to the General Hospital died, the 
cause of death being “ Septicaemia ; septic broncho-pneu¬ 
monia ; acute tracheitis.” There were four deaths due to 
diphtheria, giving a death-rate of 004, compared with 0‘07 
for England and Wales. 

135 phials (508,000 units) of antitoxin for curative or 
preventive treatment were issued free to medical practitioners 
on application to the Public Health Department at a cost of 
about £26, this being in addition to the antitoxin used at the 
Isolation Hospital. 

The marked reduction in the amount of diphtheria in the 
Borough during 1931, compared with its prevalence in 1930, 
has not been brought about by any extraordinary measures 
of prevention, such as artificial immunisation. It is merely 
the result of the periodic variation of the disease curve ; in 
other words, our being in the trough instead of on the crest 
of the wave. It is sad to see children die when death could 
have been, and would have been, prevented had a sufficient 
dose of antitoxin been given in time. Diphtheria is not a 
painful disease and consequently it has often got a good hold 


41 


and has made much progress before parents are aware a child 
is ill and requires medical attention. I think it is a mistake 
more parents do not make a practice of examining children’s 
throats, no matter what they complain of. It does not require 
much skill on the part of a parent to examine the throat (par¬ 
ticularly if the child is well trained) and no expensive apparatus 
is required, only the handle of a spoon and a good light. It 
is often more difficult for a medical practitioner, a stranger, 
to get a good view of a nervous child’s throat, and frequently 
by the time he has been called in irreparable damage has been 
done. 

The incidence dropped more particularly in the latter 
half of the year and this happy state of affairs has continued 
until the present time (April, 1932). There was no diphtheria 
case in the Infectious Diseases Hospital from 17th August to 
9th September, nor have we any at present. 

Harborough Road Infectious Diseases Hospital. Borough 
A description of this hospital appeared last year, and further Hos pi tal s 
reference is made to it in this report, page 15. Table 17 (page 89) 
gives the statistics for 1931. The hospital was never half 
full during the year, the highest number of patients being 
thirty-seven on 13th and 14th January ; nineteen of these 
were suffering from scarlet fever and eighteen from diphtheria. 

Welford Road Tuberculosis Hospital. Reference 
should be made to pages 15 and 56. 

Smallpox Hospital. As mentioned on page 39, eight 
cases were treated during 1931 and the hospital was open from 
17th January to 27th March. Last year’s report should be 
consulted for particulars as to accommodation, etc. 

Wellingborough Road Infirmary. This institution 
is dealt with on page 15. 


143 notifications of pneumonia were received, which is Pneumonia 
twenty-two fewer than in 1930, and as with scarlet fever is the 
lowest for ten years. The attack-rate was T54. Forty-four 
were said to be broncho-pneumonia and nineteen were reported 
to be of influenzal origin. In addition, ten deaths were 
certified as due to pneumonia (either primary or influenzal) 
in persons not previously notified, bringing the total up to 
153. As usual, the age of the patients varied considerably, 
the youngest being four months while the oldest was eighty- 
five years. 

Fifty-three deaths were attributed to pneumonia, of which 
nine were certified as following influenza and twenty-two were 
ascribed to broncho-pneumonia, leaving twenty-two for all the 
other types, the chief of which was the lobar variety, probably 
the most fatal of acute illnesses in this country. The death- 
rate for all forms was (h57, 


42 


Puerperal 

Fever 


Puerperal 

Pyrexia 


Ophthalmia 

Neonatorum 


Venereal 

Diseases 


There were ten notifications of puerperal fever, two less 
than in the previous year, giving an attack-rate of 7*84 per 
thousand total births registered, compared with 3*55 for 
England and Wales. Two were doctors’ cases ; the rest 
occurred in the practice of midwives, with two exceptions 
which were institutional cases. All but one were treated 
in the General Hospital, where three ended fatally, two of the 
deaths being “ outward transfers.” In two instances the 
births were illegitimate. 

We received nine notifications of puerperal pyrexia, nearly 
twice as many as in 1930. The attack-rate was 7*05 per 
thousand total births registered, as against 8*71 for England 
and Wales. Four were doctors’ cases ; the rest occurred in 
the practice of midwives. Four were treated in the General 
Hospital, all making good recoveries. One case also suffered 
from puerperal insanity. She was removed to the Public 
Assistance Infirmary, Wellingborough Road, and later was 
able to return home. In one instance the birth was illegiti¬ 
mate. 

Eight notifications of ophthalmia neonatorum were 
received, all occurring in the practice of midwives. Three 
were illegitimates. Several were quite mild, but the three 
illegitimates were much more severe and required in-patient 
treatment at the General Hospital. Neisser’s organism was 
present in the discharge from the most severe case, where, in 
spite of hospital in-patient treatment, an opacity of one cornea 
remains. All the rest except one seem to have recovered 
satisfactorily. (See also pages 47 and 72). 


139 residents of the Borough received treatment for the 
first time at the Special Clinic for venereal diseases at the 
General Hospital, under the combined scheme worked in 
conjunction with the County Councils of Northamptonshire 
and Buckinghamshire. The new cases were classified as 
follow :—- 

MALES. 

25 
43 
27 


CONDITION. 

Syphilis . 

Gonorrhoea . 

Other than Venereal . . 


FEMALES. 

15 

7 

22 


TOTAL. 

40 

50 

49 


Totals 


95 


44 


139 


From the returns furnished by the General Hospital it 
appears one syphilis and twelve gonorrhoea patients, 
including persons under treatment at the commencement of 
the year, carried out the full course of treatment recommended 
by the specialists in charge of the Clinic. 

Five syphilis and twenty-five gonorrhoea patients ceased 






43 


to attend before completion of the course and the final tests 
were made. Anything short of the full course is unsatisfactory, 
to say the least of it. Half measures in venereal disease are 
useless, or perhaps worse, as they only lull the patient into 
a false sense of security whilst he or she still remains infective ; 
but, as I remarked in a former report, this class of patient is 
probably the most happy-go-lucky of all. 

The total attendances made by Borough patients at the 
out-patient clinic were 4,950 and 141 days were spent in hospital 
by patients. 

In the treatment of syphilis, 815 doses of one or other of 
the approved arsenobenzene compounds were administered. 
In connection with the scheme, 906 specimens were examined 
by the Pathologist at a cost of £191 9s. ; 654 specimens were 
on behalf of the Treatment Centre and 252 for local practition¬ 
ers. 


The work in connection with the anti-tuberculosis cam- Tuber- 
paign has been carried on by the Tuberculosis Department culosis 
on the lines which have been followed in the past. Towards 
the end of the year an X-ray apparatus was installed at the 
Tuberculosis Dispensary, Hazelwood Road, by Messrs. Schall 
& Son, Ltd., of London, at a total cost of just over £500. The 
object of the apparatus is to detect, if possible, the disease in 
its earliest stages, before the physical signs are sufficiently 
advanced to be discovered by other means. A second use 
for the plant, which had not been actually brought into use 
at the end of the year, is to observe the results of the treatment 
of phthisis by means of artificial pneumothorax, the apparatus 
for carrying out this treatment being a recent addition to the 
Dispensary. 

The general outline of the scheme in operation in the 
Borough was given in my last report, pages 46 and 47. The 
tuberculosis death-rate in Northampton for 1931 was :— 
respiratory O'75, other forms O'15, giving a total rate of (L90, 
which is (h06 above the figure for 1930. The rate for England 
and Wales in 1931 was 0'89 (respiratory 0*74, other forms 
0*15). As mentioned in previous reports, we must be prepared 
for slight fluctuations of the rate from year to year. 

In his interesting report (Appendix I., pages 51 to 63), 

Dr. Laughton emphasises the value of prevention in anti¬ 
tuberculosis work. If the axiom, “ Prevention is better than 
cure,” be true in any department of medicine it is doubly true 
regarding tuberculosis, for, as Dr. Laughton says, the cure in 
this disease is in the majority of cases only a partial one and 
that often of short duration. If there is to be any semblance 
of cure or arrest, the disease must be attacked in its earliest 
stages. 

In the campaign against tuberculosis all are required to 
“ do their bit ” if the fight has to be won—the patient and his 




44 


friends, the general practitioner, and the Local Authority 
acting through the Medical Officer and Tuberculosis Officer ; 
the patient must consult his doctor on the appearance of the 
first suspicious signs or symptoms pointing to consumption, 
and these are now so well known to the general public that no 
excuse can be taken for disregarding or ignoring them. Again, 
the medical practitioner when consulted by such a patient 
must regard the matter as most urgent, and if in any doubt 
as to the diagnosis he can call in the Tuberculosis Officer 
for his opinion, when the case will be examined by the latest 
methods, and, if necessary, admitted to an institution for a 
period of observation. The case having been found to be one 
of tuberculosis, the Tuberculosis Officer will advise as to the 
appropriate treatment to be followed and it is up to the patient 
to carry out this advice whether at home (domiciliary treat¬ 
ment under his or her own medical practitioner with occasional 
visits to the Tuberculosis Officer at the Dispensary), or if 
residential treatment in an institution is considered necessary 
by the Tuberculosis Officer he will advise this being carried 
out, either at Welford Road Hospital or at a sanatorium, 
probably Creaton, the cost in these cases being defrayed by the 
Local Authority. It is a mistake to suppose all cases are 
suitable or require institutional treatment. Again, there is 
a wide difference between sanatorium treatment, in the true 
sense of the word, and hospital treatment. A case may not 
be at the time of examination fit for the sanatorium, but after 
a period of rest, etc., in hospital it may improve so much (and 
frequently does as shewn by Dr. Laughton’s report) as to be 
fit to pass on to the sanatorium, but whatever the result of 
sanatorium treatment may be it falls short of the ideal result 
of prevention, and it will ultimately be found the best results 
from every point of view will be attained by prevention as 
distinct from treatment. It is for this reason so much stress 
is laid on taking advantage of the means which tend to increase 
the immunity (resisting power of the body) to tuberculosis, 
such as the taking of regular exercise in the open air, the 
keeping of regular hours, and the consumption of sufficient 
food of the right kind, the avoidance of alcohol and over¬ 
crowding, etc. Where it is possible to carry out these rules, 
tuberculosis seldom obtains a footing. 

Some years ago (in 1924) I gave it as my opinion that 
pulmonary tuberculosis in children of school age is a rare 
condition in spite of many having been notified in the past. 
The great majority of these children were not suffering from 
tuberculosis but from some other abnormality of the lungs, 
or in many cases from no disease of the lungs, tuberculous or 
otherwise. This view is now held by man}^ tuberculosis officers, 
including those with the widest experience, i.e., those through 
whose hands pass the greatest number of children, the officers 
of the London County Council, In the same way the idea of 


45 


the “ pre-tuberculous ” child is also changing, as at last it is 
recognised that the “ pre-tuberculous ” child does not develop 
into the tuberculous adolescent. It is much more common 
to find the tuberculous adolescent with a history of good (in 
fact robust) health whilst at school, and for some years after 
leaving, than to find he or she was amongst the so-called 
“ pre-tuberculous.” In other words, it is commoner to find 
the athlete than the so-called “ pre-tuberculous ” amongst 
these adolescent' phthisis cases. Why these young people 
break down during early adolescence is not known, but one fact 
about them is beyond doubt, viz :—that the prognosis is 
extremely grave. 

In my report for 1930, a summary of the cancer position Cancer 
in Northampton was given, together with figures relating 
to the disease for the past forty years. It will be remembered 
that the number of deaths attributed to cancer had been on 
the increase for many years and in 1930 (the year covered 
by the report) the cancer death-rate for the Borough reached 
its highest figure, T78, against 1 ‘45 for England and Wales. 

The number of deaths certified as due to cancer in 1931 was 
148, giving a death-rate of T60, while for England and Wales 
it was T48. 

No special work has been undertaken in connection with 
cancer, as it is felt the General Hospital, with its medical 
and surgical specialists and large out-patient department, 
is more fitted for such work. 

The usual table giving particulars of clinical bacteriology Bacterio 
will be found on page 90. The general arrangements for logy 
bacteriological work were outlined on page 12 of last year’s 
report. 


Table 18 (page 89) shews the number of articles stoved Disinfection 
each month at the Disinfecting Station, St. Andrew’s Road. 

For some time I have felt that the procedure followed in 
Northampton with regard to disinfection of premises after a 
case of notifiable infectious disease has occurred is out of 
date, i.e., it does not rest on modern scientific knowledge in 
so far as the requiring of the stripping of walls and whitewashing 
the ceiling of the room where a case of illness had been nursed. 

I think this procedure dates back to the early days of the germ 
theory of disease, i.e., to the beginning of the science of bacterio¬ 
logy, when, if observers were very keen, they were not so 
experienced in the behaviour of bacteria outside the body as 
they are to-day. It was formerly thought the germs of scarlet 
fever and diphtheria could and would live for a long time on the 
wallpaper or the ceiling of a room, or on the furniture and 
other inanimate objects, and give rise to other cases of the 
disease. Experience does not bear out these views and we now 


46 


General 

Remarks 


Infant 

Mortality 


know that it is not by these means that infectious diseases are 
spread, but by droplet infection, i.e., by personal contact with 
the sick. When the sick person has recovered or been removed 
to the Isolation Hospital, the danger of spread has disappeared. 
On these grounds the Public Health Committee has decided 
that the stripping of walls and whitewashing of ceilings after 
the occurrence of infectious disease should be discontinued. 
Bedding, etc., used by the patient will be removed and disin¬ 
fected as formerly, as these articles are likely to have been 
infected and though washing, especially if accompanied by 
boiling, would do all that steam disinfection can perform, 
we are never sure this will be carried out in all cases by the 
patient's relatives. Soap and water if properly used are as 
effective as a chemical disinfectant. 

VII.—MATERNITY AND CHILD WELFARE. 

The eleventh annual report of the Assistant Medical 
Officer for Maternity and Child Welfare on the work of that 
Department will be found in Appendix II., pages 64 to 77, and 
is on the same lines as its predecessors. 

The infant mortality-rate was 70'6 per thousand live 
births registered, which is the highest figure touched for the 
past ten years. The rate for England and Wales rose from 
60 in 1930 to 66 in 1931, and this is the first occasion since 1915 
that the rate for the Borough has exceeded that for the 
country. Nevertheless, this relatively high rate locally must 
be a source of disappointment to all workers in the infant 
welfare cause, following as it does a series of very low figures, 
remarkably low for an industrial town. To what is this rise 
due ? 

As usual, the first place amongst the causes of death is 
taken by prematurity. When we have discovered a means 
of reducing premature births we shall have made another 
great advance in the saving of infantile life. 

Dr. Bebbington calls attention to the fact that very few 
of the infants who died before reaching the age of one year 
attended one of the eight infant welfare centres. From Table 
D at the end of this volume it will be noticed nearly half of the 
babies who died under one year did so before the end of the 
second week of life. The higher infant death-rate for 1931 is 
doubly disappointing, as during the year the Northampton 
Maternity and Infant Welfare Voluntary Association was 
awarded the second place in competition for the Astor Shield 
and in consequence became the holders of the Kettering Shield, 
presented to the runners-up. Every opportunity must be 
taken of advising and encouraging expectant mothers to 
attend the ante-natal clinics and to bring their infants to the 
centres after birth, so that they may be instructed and helped 
in the saving of these infant lives. 


47 


The ultra-violet ray (Hanovia Alpine Sun) lamp has been 
in more or less regular use during the year. Thanks to the 
kindness of the General Hospital authorities all our health 
visitors received a course of training at the hospital in the 
use of ultra-violet rays and are now able to operate the lamp 
at the Central Building, thus freeing Dr. Bebbington for other 
work. The most beneficial effects of artificial sunlight treat¬ 
ment, so far as infants are concerned, seem to be in the cure of 
rickets, especially if applied early in the disease. 

The Maternity and Child Welfare Committee still retains 
four beds at this hospital, chiefly occupied by cases of rickets 
or congenital malformations. Four beds appear to be ample 
for our needs, for though they were fully occupied during the 
year there was never a large waiting list. 

As already mentioned on page 16, at the end of 1931 there 
were seven nursing homes on the register, viz :—three matern¬ 
ity, one mixed, and three medical or surgical for aged and 
infirm persons. 

A meeting was held at the headquarters of the Queen’s 
Institute of District Nursing, at which representatives of the 
County and Borough Maternity Committees were present, 
to discuss the possibility of the Queen’s Institute building a 
maternity home with the help and support of the County 
and Borough Councils. While no definite promises could 
be given, both local authorities viewed the matter very sympa¬ 
thetically. No further steps had been taken by the end of the 
year. 

As the great majority of persons who are said to have been 
blind from birth are suffering from loss of sight due to ophthal¬ 
mia neonatorum, it requires no stretch of imagination to realise 
how important this disease is and how every effort should be 
made to prevent its onset after birth. This can nearly always 
be done if sufficient care is taken to treat the eyes immediately 
after birth. Once the disease has made its appearance it should 
be energetically treated by a professional man or woman ; 
if due to Neisser’s organism, specialist treatment at the General 
Hospital is urgently called for. Unfortunately, it is just in 
those cases where the gonococcus is present that everybody 
around the infant appears to be the most helpless and shiftless, 
with the result the sight is frequently damaged or destroyed. 
(See also pages 42 and 72). 

All maternal deaths occurring in the Borough are investi¬ 
gated, according to the requirements of the Committee appoint¬ 
ed by the late Minister of Health to advise on maternal mor¬ 
tality, and the result of each inquiry is forwarded to the 
Ministry. 


Artificial 

Sunshine 


Manfield 

Ortho¬ 

paedic 

Hospital 


Maternity 

Homes 


Ophthalmia 

Neonatorum 


Maternal 

Mortality 


48 


All notified cases of puerperal fever and pyrexia are in¬ 
vestigated by the Assistant Medical Officer for Maternity and 
Child Welfare. 

Circular 1167 and Memorandum 156/M.CAV. were con¬ 
sidered by the Maternity and Child Welfare Committee, with 
a view to improving the local service on the lines suggested 
in the Memorandum, and the following action was taken :—- 

1. —-Walter Salisbury, Esq., M.D., F.R.C.S., was appointed 

as surgical consultant. 

2. —Sterilised maternity outfits are to be provided free 

to necessitous cases approved by the Assistant Medical 
Officer for Maternity and Child Welfare. 

3. —-The ladies of the Voluntary Association working in 

conjunction with the Statutory Committee are to 
give assistance in providing home helps where these are 
considered to be desirable or necessary. 

4. —All general practitioners in the Borough were cir¬ 

cularised :—- 

{a) asking them to discourage the employment 
of handywomen at confinements ; 

( b) acquainting them of the appointment of a 
consultant obstetrician ; and 

(c) calling attention to the desirability of im¬ 
pressing on their patients the importance of 
ante-natal examinations, giving them the 
time clinics are held at the Central Building, 
Dychurch Lane. 

These steps were approved by the Minister of Health. 
Most, if not all, of the other suggestions contained in the 
Memorandum were already being carried out in Northampton. 

It is probably too early as yet to say what has been the 
effect of the large amount of work and research which has been 
performed in this country during the last two years in con¬ 
nection with maternal mortality. Several years with a down¬ 
ward trend will have to persist before we can be sure we are on 
the right track. There appears to be some factor present, 
little understood, which determines the onset of the dread 
puerperal sepsis. The deaths from other causes associated with 
pregnancy seem more amenable to prevention by a better all 
round maternity service and even this cannot be brought 
about in a single year. 

In his Annual Report for 1930, the Chief Medical Officer 
to the Ministry of Health mentioned Northampton as one of 
the towns with a high maternal mortality-rate, though more 
favourably circumstanced than industrial towns in Lancashire 
and Yorkshire. In other words, Northampton is, or was, one 
of the black spots. It behoves all who have the welfare of the 
Town at heart to do all in their power to reduce maternal 
mortality by inducing expectant mothers to take advantage 
of the help and advice offered them by the Maternity and 


49 


Child Welfare Committees, both Statutory and Voluntary. 

There were five maternal deaths in Northampton in 1931 
—-four from puerperal sepsis and one from other puerperal 
causes—-giving a maternal mortality figure of 4 05 per thousand 
live births registered (sepsis 324, other causes 081). The 
corresponding figures for England and Wales were 411 (sepsis 
T66, other causes 2‘45). 

It is really more accurate to calculate the maternal mor¬ 
tality in proportion to every thousand total births, i.e., live 
births and stillbirths registered. Expressed in this way the 
figure for Northampton last year was 3‘92 and for England and 
Wales 3 - 95. The ideal method, of course, would be to base the 
figures on the number of women exposed to the risk of dying 
from puerperal conditions. 


Children aged one to five years, commonly called '‘toddlers,” 
are visited in their homes by the health visitors as part of their 
routine work. Mothers are also asked to bring children of this 
age with them to the welfare centres. In view of the im¬ 
portance lately attached to the supervision of children of pre¬ 
school age, the health visitors are instructed to pay extra 
attention to them. So far as one can see, this part of the 
work appears to be efficiently carried out. 


As stated in my last report, the supervision of infants 
and children under Part I. of the Children Act, 1908, was 
definitely transferred from the Guardians to the Maternity 
and Child Welfare Committee by the coming into force of the 
Local Government Act, 1929, the health visitors being appointed 
infant life protection visitors. The duties to be performed 
under this Act consist of keeping the register of children under 
the age of seven years who are being maintained for gain or 
reward by persons other than relatives, and the regular visit¬ 
ation of these children in their homes, together with in¬ 
spection of the premises. A few words on these matters may 
not be out of place here. For homeless children, orphans, un¬ 
wanted illegitimates, etc., I think the best place is a home with 
a private family as visualised in the Children Act if (and it is 
sometimes a big “if”) a suitable place can be found. All the 
people who take in children for gain or reward are not suitable 
for that work. During the year I had to have two children 
(one over seven) removed from the custody of a couple and 
give notice to them to cease receiving children under the Act 
or proceedings would be taken. I took these steps on moral 
grounds. These children had had four sets of foster-parents 
before the above incident happened. Again, there is too much 
changing of these foster-parents. It cannot be good for 
children to have to change their foster-parents or guardians so 
frequently. When the right persons are found the children 


Health 

Visiting 


Children 
Act, 1908 


50 


should remain with them until the latter are able to look after 
themselves. I feel very strongly on this point. At the end of 
the year, there were forty-six children on the register and these 
were being maintained in thirty-nine separate homes. 


See Appendix III . (page 78) for the usual statistical tables 
in connection with the Medical Officer of Health's report . 


Appendix /. (page 51) deals with the work of the Tuberculosis 
Department and Appendix II. (page 64) with the Maternity and 
Child Welfare Department. 


51 


APPENDIX I. 


REPORT OF THE CLINICAL TUBERCULOSIS 
OFFICER FOR THE YEAR 1931. 


Tuberculosis Dispensary, 

March, 1932. 

To the Medical Officer of Health and Chief Tuberculosis 
Officer. 

Sir, 

I beg to submit herewith my report on the anti-tuberculosis 
scheme for the year 1931. 

Your obedient Servant, 

N. B. LAUGHTON. 


During the year 144 cases were notified as suffering from Notifications 
tuberculosis. Of these, 115 were pulmonary and 29 non-pul- 
monary. The corresponding numbers notified in these two 
groups in the previous year were 109 and 21 ( i.e ., a total of 
130). The classification of new cases is given in detail in Table 
T1 (page 58). 

In the next table is given the duration of illness of those 
notified with pulmonary disease. This, of course, can be only 
a rough estimate at the best, for it is impossible to give with 
exactness the duration of a complaint which has so often an 
insidious beginning. 

Table T8 (page 63) shews the age groups for new cases 
and deaths, and it will be noted that the incidence of lung 
disease was highest for females in the 20-25 year period, and for 
males in the 25-35 year period. One case of interest was that 
of a man notified with pulmonary disease at the age of 84. 

The number of deaths, and the death-rates from tuber- Deaths 
culosis per thousand of the population in 1931, are tabulated 
below :—- 


RESPIj 

RATORY. 

OTHER FORMS. 

TOTAL. 

NO. 

RATE. 

NO. 

RATE. 

NO. 

RATE. 

70 

0'75 

14 

0-15 

84 

0*90 





















52 


The Value 
of Preven¬ 
tion 


Delay in 
Notification 


The death-rate for pulmonary disease is nearly the same as 
in the previous year ; that for all forms shews a small increase 
due chiefly to a greater occurrence of tuberculous meningitis. 
The death-rate in 1930 was considerably below that of the 
average for county boroughs, and it is likely that the figure 
for 1931 will again compare well with others. 

Of those cases which died during the year from pulmonary 
tuberculosis, 41 per cent, did so within one year of notification. 
This proportion is an ominous one, yet it is 14 per cent, below 
the average for the past ten years. The figure varies a good 
deal from year to year, and the present one can be regarded 
as no more than a favourable feature of this particular period, 
and not as indicating a downward trend. 

The value of preventive work in attacking the mortality 
from tuberculosis cannot be over-emphasised, and it should 
be regarded always as more important than treatment because 
it is more productive. There is every reason to believe that by 
taking adequate precautionary measures the lives of contacts 
of infectious cases may be greatly insured against acquiring 
the disease. Economically a life so saved represents the highest 
possible return for municipal and personal effort. But as good 
health is a blessing which is not fully appreciated until it is 
lost, and as these cases cannot be specified in particular, they 
come under no limelight and enter no record. Sanatorium 
and hospital treatment, however satisfactory in their results, 
can do no more in the majority of cases than restore to partial 
health and working capacity, with a comparatively poor 
expectation of life. 

The obvious remedy is firstly, to take steps to reduce as 
far as possible the risks of infection, especially amongst the 
close associates of a tuberculous patient, and secondly, to obtain 
notification and treatment at the earliest stage of the disease, 
so as to secure the maximum prospect of life, the fullest return 
to capacity, and the least expenditure on treatment. 

One is frustrated in the second of these endeavours chiefly 
by delay in seeking advice. Cases have occurred in the past 
year in which patients with typical symptoms of active tuber¬ 
culosis over a long period have refused to have medical help 
until a week or two of their deaths. In the case of certain 
infective conditions, and particularly in this disease, the practice 
of “ sticking it out ” as long as possible before seeking advice 
and treatment deserves condemnation, not commendation, 
from the public that suffers serious consequences from such 
mis-directed perseverance. The plea of ignorance cannot be 
maintained in every case, for it occurs frequently in families 
in which the fatal results of delay have been exemplified tragic¬ 
ally in the case of one or more members on an earlier occasion. 
A patient often has active disease with a heavily infected 


53 


sputum for months before the condition comes to notice. The 
menace to his house “ contacts ” is proportional to the time 
they are exposed to massive infection, and to the housing and 
hygienic circumstances. In 1931 there was a definite evidence 
of the existence of house infection in more than half of those 
cases in which the disease was definitely considered to be tuber¬ 
culous. It is the routine practice at the Dispensary to examine 
as many as possible of the close contacts of new cases, to inform 
them of the earliest indications of disease, and the necessity 
of seeking immediate advice should any suspicious symptoms 
arise at a later period. Individual warning of this kind, though 
much of it seems futile, is likely to be more effective than 
general propaganda. A record is now maintained of “ tuber¬ 
culous households,” so that touch may be kept with those 
contacts who, because of heavy exposure to infection or some 
other reason, are likely to provide many of the new cases of the 
future. 

To combat the forces of tuberculosis effectively it is there¬ 
fore necessary to meet them on a wide front and anticipate 
the attack. The household is the unit of infection, and the 
household should be dealt with in a preventive scheme. 


For the patient there is the necessity of isolation and The Patient 
treatment, usually in hospital or sanatorium, where at the 
same time he learns to live as will best maintain his health, 
and to reduce to a minimum the risk to those living with him. 

The fundamental value of prolonged rest as the basis of recovery 
has to be realised. It is sometimes argued that this would 
not be tolerated for long by patients who feel fit enough to 
move about, but one’s experience has been that they soon learn 
to appreciate the benefit and the necessity of it, and co-operate 
well in the slow spade-work of making the foundation of health 
as sound as possible. Occasionally too, after many months of 
complete rest and patient waiting, the reward comes to a case 
which gave scant hope of recovery. The progress of a hospital 
patient depends much upon his mental make-up, as the 
maintenance of his health after he is discharged depends 
much upon the intelligent application of what he has learned 
to the circumstances in which he is placed. 


For the household contacts there is the requirement of The 
healthy living, so that the seed of the disease may not have Contacts 
the strength to germinate owing to the high resistance of a 
healthy body. Ample fresh air is called for, and in this con¬ 
nection might be mentioned the detrimental effect of over¬ 
clothing, especially in the summer months, which seems to be 
so rife in the cases of men and children. Sufficient nourish¬ 
ment to maintain good nutrition is needful. 


54 


Housing 


Revision of 
Register 


Park 

Workers 


Tuberculosis 

Dispensary 


The importance of good housing was commented upon in 
the last annual report, and may be emphasised again. The 
official designation of “ overcrowding ” may not apply to a 
house, but the occurrence of a case of pulmonary tuberculosis 
may render it definitely applicable when the important question 
of isolation is considered. 

An investigation of patients living in Council houses in 
December, 1931, shewed that these numbered 73. About 
two-thirds of them were pulmonary cases, and, as already 
stated, the positive but unrecorded benefits to household 
contacts must not be forgotten, for it may mean the saving of 
useful lives and of costly expenditure in treatment. In patients 
who had moved into these houses, one has frequently noticed 
a brighter and more optimistic outlook, which in itself is highly 
beneficial. A practice which has been adopted by one or two 
authorities, and which seems a very commendable one, is to 
make the granting of municipal houses to tuberculous persons 
conditional upon their satisfactory co-operation in such treat¬ 
ment and supervision as is advisable for the welfare of them¬ 
selves and the community, e.g., in the matter of examination 
of patients and families when required, and the reasonable 
exercise of precautionary measures in the home. 

Under the Public Health (Tuberculosis) Regulations, 
1930, the names of forty-three notified persons were removed 
from the register in 1931, made up as follows :—- 

(a) Thirty in which the diagnosis had not been established, 
and 

( b ) Thirteen in which the patient had attained a con¬ 
dition which might be regarded as recovered. 

Particulars of cases thought to be suitable for deletion 
were submitted to the Medical Officer of Health, who obtained 
the assent of the practitioner notifying or at present in charge, 
where possible. 

On 31st December, 1931, there were 533 cases on the 
Medical Officer of Health's register, 374 being pulmonary 
and 159 non-pulmonary. 

At the end of 1931, twelve men and six women were em¬ 
ployed under the scheme for tuberculous patients. With 
only one or two exceptions they were able to continue at their 
work throughout the year. 

The work at the Dispensary shewed an increase in certain 
respects over that of 1930. The number of attendances and 
the number of individuals examined were considerably greater. 
225 examinations of “ contacts ” were made as against 145. 
More patients were examined at the request of general prac¬ 
titioners. The bacteriological examinations were more num¬ 
erous, 


55 


The work carried out is summarised below :—• 


Attendances:—- 

Total number of attendances of patients, etc. 1,307 

Number of patients, etc., attending :— 

Males ... 291 

Females . 248 


-539 

225 examinations of “ contacts ” were made, and of the 
172 individuals examined 3 were subsequently notified. 177 
examinations were made at the request of general practitioners 
for diagnosis, and of the 82 persons examined 23 were sub¬ 
sequently notified. These figures are included in the above 
totals. 

The average number of attendances per patient was 2-4. 

In addition to examinations at the Dispensary, the Tuber¬ 
culosis Officer made 207 visits to the homes of patients, either 
at the request, or with the permission, of general practitioners. 

The visits made by the nurse from the Dispensary were :— 
Number of investigations after notification in the case of 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis . 95 

Other Forms of Tuberculosis . 21 

Deaths from Tuberculosis . 1 

-117 

Re-visits, etc. 1,206 

Total . 1,323 

568 specimens of sputum, urine, etc., in connection with 

451 cases or suspected cases, were examined at the bacterio¬ 
logical laboratory attached to the Dispensary ; 108 were found 
to be positive and 460 negative. 


Early m the year it was decided to provide the Dispensary X-ray Plant 
with an X-ray plant, and this was installed by Messrs. Sehall 
& Son in December. It will assist very materially in diagnostic 
work, especially in the detection of disease in an early stage, 
and in the elimination of those conditions which clinically 
simulate tuberculosis. 


Reference may be made here to Table T7 (page 62), which Residential 
shews the disposal of notified cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. Treatment 
A satisfactory feature is the decline in the number who, having 
been advised to have residential (sanatorium or hospital) 
treatment, refused to take advantage of the offer. The figures 
for the past four years are as follow 


1928 32 per cent. 

1929 28 per cent. 

1930 24 per cent. 

1931 15 per cent. 













56 


This seems to indicate an increasing willingness to accept 
the benefits of what is usually the best and quickest route 
to recovery. If a patient takes the step with hesitation, he is, 
in all but rare instances, soon convinced of the wisdom of his 
decision. 


Welford 

Road 

Hospital 


The following are the statistics 

with reference to 

patient 

treated at Welford Road Hospital 

;—- 




MALES. 

FEMALES. 

TOTAL. 

Remaining at end of 1930 .. 

8 

4 

12 

Admitted during 1931 . 

23 

26 

49 

Discharged during 1931 . 

19 

15 

34 

Died during 1931 . 

4 

2 

6 

Remaining at end of 1931 . 

8 

13 

21 


Of the 49 cases admitted, 38 were insured persons. All 
were admitted for isolation and treatment. 


Condition on discharge :•—- 

Quiescent . 6 

Much Improved. 14 

Improved . 6 

In Statu Quo . 6 

Worse . 2 

The number of patients treated at Welford Road Hospital 
was practically the same as in 1930. Considering those dis¬ 
charged, it is satisfactory to note that over three-fourths of them 
left the hospital quiescent or improved, and twenty-nine per 
cent, of them were transferred to Creaton Sanatorium. The 
average duration of their stay in hospital was 136 days, or roughly 
4J months. Their weight records are interesting. In five 
cases none were available. Of the remainder (29) none lost 
weight, and the average gain was over 17 lbs. The most 
gained was 42 lbs. 

The need for single-bedded wards at the hospital has 
long been felt, and it was decided to erect four of these, two 
on the male side and two on the female. The work was com¬ 
menced towards the end of the year. 


Creaton 

Sanatorium 


Below are the data with reference to the patients treated at 


Creaton Sanatorium :— 


MALES. 

FEMALES. 

TOTAL. 

Remaining at end of 1930 . 

9 

6 

15 

Admitted during 1931 .. 

18 

11 

29 

Discharged during 1931 . 

17 

12 

29 

Remaining at end of 1931 . . . . . 

10 

5 

15 

Condition on discharge :— 

Quiescent . . . 


. 9 


Much Improved. 


. 8 


Improved . 


. 9 


In Statu Quo . 


. 2 


Declining . 


...... 1 























57 


The beds at the sanatorium remained well occupied 
throughout the year. The excellent results of treatment are 
indicated by the fact that 90 per cent, of those discharged were 
considered to be quiescent or improved. 


Particulars of cases treated at Manfield Orthopaedic 
Hospital are as follow —- 

MALES. FEMALES. TOTAL. 

Remaining at end of 1930 5 8 13 

Admitted during 1931 . 3 1 4 

Discharged during 1931 5 6 11 

Remaining at end of 1931 3 3 6 

Condition on discharge :—- 

Quiescent . 9 

Improved . 1 

Declining . 1 

The lesions treated in these cases were those of the spine, 
knee, hip, and sacro-iliac joint. 


Cases treated at other institutions were as follow :—- 

MALES. FEMALES. TOTAL. 

Remaining at end of 1930 . 1 —- 1 

Admitted during 1931 . 2 1 3 

Discharged during 1931 . 1 1 2 

Remaining at end of 1931 . 2 —- 2 

In the treatment of these cases the following institutions 
were made use of :— 

St. Anthony’s Hospital, Cheam, Surrey ; 

Eversfield Chest Hospital, St. Leonards-on-Sea ; 
International Factory Clinic, Leysin, Switzerland ; and 
King Edward VII. Sanatorium, Midhurst. 

In addition, three went privately to the Royal National 
Hospital, Ventnor ; one to the Royal National Sanatorium, 
Bournemouth ; and one to the London Temperance Hospital. 

There was no case of compulsory removal to hospital 
under Section 62 of this Act. 


It was not necessary to take any action under these 
Regulations, which deal with tuberculous employees in the 
milk trade. 


Manfield 

Orthopaedic 

Hospital 


Other 

Institutions 


Public 
Health Act, 
1925 

Public 
Health 
(Prevention 
of Tuber¬ 
culosis) 
Regulations, 
1925 













58 


Table Tl. Northampton, 1931. 
Tuberculosis. Classification of New Cases. 


CLASSIFICATION. 

NOTIFIED 

CASES. 

DEATHS OF CASES 

NOT NOTIFIED. 

M. 

F. 

TOTAL. 

M. 

F. 

TOTAL. 

Pulmonary :—- 







Lung and Pleura . 

62 

51 

113 

2 

— 

2 

Larynx . 

1 

1 

2 

— 

-—■ 

—• 


63 

52 

115* 

2 

—- 

2* 

Meninges and Brain. 

4 

5 

9 

2 

-- 

2 

Peritoneum and Intestines 

2 

3 

5 

— 

—- 

—■ 

Bones and Joints . . . . 

4 

4 

8 

—- 

•—- 

—- 

Cervical Glands . 

4 

1 

5 

—- 

— 

—■ 

Other Organs . 

1 

1 

2 

2 

-—- 

2 

Totals. 

78 

66 

144 

6 

— 

6 


*A total of 117 fresh cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. 


Table T2. Northampton, 1931. 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis Investigations. Duration of Illness. 


PERIOD. 

NOTIFIED 

CASES. 

DEATHS OF 

CASES NOT 

NOTIFIED. 

TOTAL. 

Under 6 months . 

19 

_ 

19 

Over 6 months and under 1 year 

17 

— 

17 

Over 1 year and under 2 years . . 

19 

— 

19 

Over 2 years and under 3 years 

15 

— 

15 

Over 3 years and under 4 years 

11 

— 

11 

Over 4 years and under 5 years 

5 

— 

5 

Over 5 years . 

19 

— 

19 

Unascertained . 

10 

2 

12 

Totals. 

115 

2 

117 














































59 


Table T3. Northampton, 1931. 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis Investigations. Sex and State. 



MALES. 

FEMALES. 

TOTAL. 

Single. 

23 

28 

51 

Married . 

33 

20 

53 

Widowed . 

2 

2 

4 

Unascertained . 

7 

2 

9 

Totals. 

65 

52 

117 


Table T4. Northampton, 1931. 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis Investigations. Degree of Home 

Isolation Found. 



MALES. 

FEMALES. 

TOTAL. 

Number having separate Bedrooms 

19 

20 

39 

Number having separate Beds (only) 

4 

5 

9 

Number having no Isolation . . . . 

33 

22 

55 

Number in Institutions. 

5 

1 

6 

Unascertained. 

4 

4 

8 

Totals. 

65 

52 

117 

























60 


Table T5. Northampton, 1931. 

Tuberculosis Deaths. Period elapsing between Notification 

and Death. 


PERIOD BETWEEN NOTIFICATION 

AND DEATH. 

MALES. 

FEMALES. 

TOTAL. 

(1) Pulmonary Tuberculosis : — - 
Not notified . 

1 


1 

One month . 

5 

4 

9 

1—-6 months . 

5 

11 

16 

6—12 months . 

2 

1 

3 

12—38 months . 

3 

3 

6 

18—24 months . 

4 

3 

7 

2 — -3 years . 

3 

3 

6 

3 — 4 years . 

3 

5 

8 

4 — -5 years . 

2 

2 

4 

5 years and over . 

5 

r* 

o 

10 

Totals . 

33 

37 

70 

(2) Tuberculosis other than 
Pulmonary : — 

Not notified . 

4 


4 

One month . 

5 

4 

9 

6 — -12 months . 

— 

1 

1 

A 

Totals . 

9 

5 

14 







































61 


Table T6. Northampton, 1931. 


Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Occupational Incidence and Mortality. 


OCCUPATION. 

New 

Cases. 

Deaths 

Registered 

OCCUPATION. 

New 

Cases. 

Deaths 

Registered 

Shoe Operatives :— 






(a) Clicker . 

4 

4 

Leather Chemist .... 

1 

1 

(h) Laster . 

3 

1 

Leather Dresser .... 

1 


(c) Finisher . 

7 

3 

Leather Dresser’s 



(d) Roughstuff 



Manager . 

-—- 

1 

and Pressman 

3 

2 

Leather Machine 



(e) Warehouse and 



Worker . 

—• 

1 

General .... 

10 

5 

Leather Sorter .... 

1 

1 

(/) Female Worker 

13 

7 

Leather Traveller . . 

—- 

1 



— 

Leather Warehouse- 




40 

22 

man . 

1 

-- 




Milk Roundsman 

1 

1 

Barmaid . 

1 


Motor Driver . 

2 

1 

Barman . 

1 

—■ 

Optician (Assistant) 

—• 

1 

Blouse Packer. 

1 

1 

Pedlar ... 

_ 

1 

Book Canvasser .... 

1 


Publican . 

1 


Cafe Proprietor .... 

1 

—• 

Railway Wagon 



Carpenter . 

2 

—- 

Greaser . 

—- 

1 

Celluloid Worker 

2 

—- 

Road Sweeper. 

1 

-• 

Clerk .. 

8 

2 

Samples Porter .... 

1 

-■ 

Companion-help .... 

1 

—- 

Schoolchild . 

3 

-- 

Confectioner . 

1 

—- 

Shop Assistant .... 

5 

-- 

Corn Merchant .... 

1 

1 

Stationer . 

1 

—- 

Corporation Park 



Surgical Instrument 



Attendant . 

__ 

1 

Maker . 

__ 

1 

Domestic Servant . . 

4 

2 

Tailoress . 

1 


Draughtsman . 

1 

1 

Veterinary Surgeon 

1 

1 

Electrician . 

1 


Waitress . 

. 

1 

Engineer . 

1 

■—■ 

Wood Last Maker . . 

— 

1 

Fancy Leather 



No Occupation .... 

3 

2 

Worker . 

1 

■—• 




French Polisher .... 

1 

—■ 




General Shopkeeper 

— 

1 




Housekeeper . 

1 

—- 




Housewife . 

16 

21 




Ice Cream Vendor . . 

1 

—- 




Insurance Agent .... 

1 

—- 



—.- 

Labourer . 

5 

1 

Totals. 

117 

70 

Laundrymaid . 


1 


























































62 


Table T7. Northampton, 1931. 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Disposal of Notified Cases. 


CLASSIFICATION. 

NUMBER. 

PER 

CENT. 

Received Residential Treatment :—- 

At Creaton Sanatorium .21 

Welford Road Hospital .30 

Both Creaton Sanatorium and Welford Road 

Hospital .10 

Union Infirmary . 3 

Royal National Hospital, Ventnor . 3 

General Hospital . 3 

King Edward VII. Sanatorium, Midhurst 1 
London Temperance Hospital . 1 

72 

62* 1 

Refused Residential Treatment. 

13 

11*3 

Too ill for removal . 

9 

7-9 

Residential Treatment not considered necessary 

9 

7-9 

Not suitable for Residential Treatment . 

4 

3*6 

Not seen (at request of doctor or patient) . 

4 

3*6 

Left the area soon after notification.. 

2 

1*8 

Died before receipt of notification . 

1 

0*9 

Making own arrangements for treatment . 

1 

0*9 

Totals .. 

115 

100*0 


























63 


Table T8. Northampton, 1931. 
Tuberculosis. Age Groups for New Cases and Deaths. 


AGE PERIODS. 


NEW 

CASES. 


DEATHS. 

PULMONARY. 

NON- 

PULMONARY. 

PULMONARY. 

NON- 

PULMONARY. 

M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

Under 1 year 



2 

1 



2 

1 

1-5 years .... 

— 

—- 

4 

3 

•—- 

—■ 

2 

2 

5-10 years 

1 

-—■ 

4 

3 

—- 

— 

2 

1 

10-15 years 

1 

2 

3 

1 

— ■ 

1 

2 

—- 

15-20 years 

4 

9 

3 

1 

2 

4 

■ —- 

1 

20-25 years 

10 

14 

-—- 

2 

2 

5 

•—• 

■—■ 

25-35 years . . 

20 

11 

1 

1 

10 

10 

—- 

—■ 

35-45 years 

10 

10 

1 

1 

6 

9 

1 

•—- 

45-55 years . . 

10 

5 

-—- 

1 

8 

6 

•—- 

•—- 

55-65 years 

8 

•—- 

— 

— 

4 

1 

— 

-—- 

65 and upwards 

1 

1 

1 

— 

1 

1 

-- 

-- 

Totals .... 

65 

52 

19 

14 

33 

37 

9 

5 


See also remarks of Medical Officer of Health on pages 43 to 45 . 



































64 


APPENDIX II. 


REPORT OF THE ASSISTANT MEDICAL OFFICER FOR 
MATERNITY AND CHILD WELFARE FOR THE YEAR 1931. 


To the Medical Officer of Health. 

Sir, 

I beg to submit herewith my report on the maternity and 
child welfare work in the Borough for the year 1931. 


Your obedient Servant, 


Infant Welfare Centre, 
Dychurch Lane, 
March, 1932. 


E. F. BEBBINGTON. 


General 

Arrange¬ 

ments 


The general arrangements for the Department are unaltered. 
There is one Assistant Medical Officer, five health visitors, 
and one clerk, whose whole time is occupied with work con¬ 
nected with maternity and child welfare. 

Although a new health visitor was appointed in 1930, the 
total visits paid by the health visitors were less in 1931. This 
is chiefly owing to the greater distances covered and also to the 
increase in the number of clinics the nurses are required to 
attend. 


Infant The number of infant deaths greatly increased during 1931. 

Mortality The i n f an t mortality-rate was 70*6, against 56’4 in 1930, and 
is the highest rate for ten years. Eighty-seven children died 
before reaching the age of one year, against sixty-nine in 1930. 
From Table M. & C.W.l it will be seen that the infant mor¬ 
tality-rate is 4*6 above that for England and Wales. 

The greatest number of infant deaths is attributed, as 
usual, to prematurity (see Table M. & C.W.2). This number 
shews a decrease of two on the figure for 1930. 

Amongst the eighty-seven children who died before the 
age of one year it may be noted that only fourteen attended 
an infant welfare centre at any time. There were six illegiti¬ 
mate babies in the eighty-seven deaths (three male and three 
female). 


The table below shews the 

age groups 

of these 

eighty 

seven children :— 

MALE. 

FEMALE. 

TOTAL. 

Under 2 weeks . 

21 

19 

40 

2 weeks and under 4 weeks 

3 

7 

10 

Total under 4 weeks ..'... 

24 

26 

50* 


^Includes 25 premature babies, of which 6 were premature 
twins and 4 were premature illegitimates. 








65 


MALE. FEMALE. TOTAL. 

4 weeks and under 1 year . . 21 16 37* 

*Includes 4 premature babies and 2 full term twins, also 
2 full term illegitimates. 

The health visitors visited fifty-three live premature 
babies in 1930. Twenty-eight of these died. The corresponding 
figures for 1931 are fifty-seven of which twenty-nine died, 
twenty-two as a direct result of prematurity. The remaining 
seven are shewn in the table below :—- 


NUMBER. 

AGE. 

CAUSE OF DEATH. 

2 

4 days and 5 days 

Congenital Debility 


(twins) 

1 

6 days 

Congenital Debility 

1 

2 weeks 

Gastro-enteritis 

1 

1 month 

Congenital Debility 

1 

4 months 

Broncho-pneumonia 

1 

10 months 

Broncho-pneumonia 


The birth-rate for 1931 was 13'3, compared with 13 • 1 
for 1930. 

1,233 live births and forty-three stillbirths were registered. 
1,280 live births and forty-nine stillbirths were notified, making 
a total of 1,329 (see Table M. & C.W.3). Table M. & C.W.4 
shews the sources of notification. 

1,300 births were investigated by the health visitors; 
twenty-two of these were not notified. The remaining births 
occurred either in larger houses, or the mothers, resident 
outside the Borough, came into the Town for their confinements 
and later returned home. Amongst the births visited, eleven 
confinements resulted in twins, so that the number 1,300 
represents 1,289 separate confinements. 531 babies (in¬ 
cluding stillborn babies) were born of primiparae. 

Investigation discloses that eighty babies were born pre¬ 
maturely. This number shews a great increase on that for 1930, 
viz: —-fifty-nine, and may be intimately connected with the 
rise in the infant mortality. Forty-one of these were first 
babies (thirty-four live and seven stillborn), and thirty-nine 
(twenty-three live and sixteen stillborn) were the children of 
multiparae. This number, eighty, includes six sets of twins. 


The number of stillbirths notified was forty-nine, five less 
than last year. Thirty-seven of these were investigated by 
the health visitors. Those not investigated included ten 
County births, i.e., born in the General Hospital or other 
institutions of parents residing outside the Borough. Fifteen 
of the investigated stillbirths were first babies, who normally 
have a higher mortality. The following table classifies the 
causes of stillbirth amongst first babies as far as can be as¬ 
certained :— 


Notification 
of Births 


Stillbirths 


Premature Birth .... 7 

Causes of Stillbirth —- 

(a) Prematurity . 1 

(b) Prematurity and Dystocia . 1 

(c) Pneumonia in Mother . 1 

(d) Pneumonia in Mother (Maternal 

Death) . 1 

(e) ? Syphilis (Illegitimate) . 1 

(/) Cause Unknown (1 Illegitimate) . . 2 

Full Term Instrumental Labour . 4 

Causes of Stillbirth :— 

(a) Dystocia . 2 

(b) Breech . 2 

Full Term Non-Instrumental Labour . 4 

Causes of Stillbirth :—- 

(a) Pneumonia and Endocarditis in Mother 1 

( b ) Prolapse of Cord . 1 

(c) Breech . 1 

(d) Cause Unknown . 1 

The health visitors also visited twenty-two stillborn in 
twenty-one multiparae (one set of twins). The following were 
the causes as far as can be ascertained:—- 

Premature Birth . 16 

Causes of Stillbirth :— 

(a) Prematurity (including 1 set of twins) 5 

(b) Placenta Praevia . 1 

(c) Dystocia (Instrumental Delivery) . . 1 

(d) Kidney Disease in Mother . 2 

(e) Inattention at Birth (N.B. in one 

case Mother M.D.) 2 

(/) Ante-partum Haemorrhage . 2 

(g) Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Mother . . 1 

(h) Cause Unknown . 2 

Full Term Instrumental Labour . 2 

Causes of Stillbirth :— 

(a) Breech . 1 

(b) Face Presentation . 1 

Full Term Non-Instrumental Labour . 4 

Causes of Stillbirth :— 

(a) Dystocia . 1 

(b) Albuminuria in Mother . 1 

(c) Prematurity (Foetus) . 1 

(d) ? Syphilis. 1 

NOTE.—Fifteen of the above multiparae had previously 
had none stillborn ; of the remaining six, four had had one 
stillbirth each, and the other two had had three and two 
stillbirths respectively. 





























Visits to Expectant Mothers :— 

First Visits . 235 

Total Visits . 826 

Visits to Infants under One Year of Age :— 

First Visits . 1,205 

Total Visits . 7,817 

Visits to Children from One to Five Years of Age :—- 

Total Visits . 8,566 


The health visitors paid 17,811 visits in 1931. This 
number includes all the visits enumerated above and also 
extra ones, viz :—-visits to houses where a stillbirth had occurred 
or a baby under one year had died, and visits to all cases of 
puerperal fever, puerperal pyrexia, ophthalmia neonatorum, 
pneumonia, etc., in women and children. 

Ultra-violet ray treatment was continued during the 
year with the usual exception of the summer months. Children 
under five, contrary to adults or school children, can make full 
use in summer of the natural sunlight, which is much to be 
preferred to artificial. Eight children were on the books at 
the beginning of 1931. These eight children ceased treatment 
during the year, having made a total of seventy-four attend¬ 
ances in 1931. Most of them suffered from rickets and 
marasmus, but there was one case of erythrodema. All 
except one benefited greatly from the treatment. 

Sixteen new cases were admitted to the clinic for treat¬ 
ment during 1931. These made a total of 135 attendances 
and some were still attending at the end of December. They 
were chiefly cases of rickets and marasmus. 

The course of treatment for each child is spread over many 
months. The course itself consists of two parts, with one 
month’s interval between each part. This gives the maximum 
benefit, provided the mothers can be persuaded to attend 
regularly for so long a period. The mentality of the children 
in almost every case undergoes a marked improvement. 
Whining and irritability, the usual concomitants of ill-health, 
disappear after the first few exposures. 

The total attendances during 1931 numbered 209. 

The autumn course of ultra-violet ray treatment was 
conducted by the health visitors, who each took a course 
covering a period of roughly twelve sessions at the General 
Hospital Clinic in order to gain some idea of the routine treat¬ 
ment for children and adults. 

Four beds are maintained, when occupied, at Manfield 
Hospital, by the Maternity and Child Welfare Committee for 
non-tuberculous children under school age recommended by the 
Medical Officer of Health and the Assistant Medical Officer. 
The children admitted are suffering from bone diseases—- 
chiefly rickets—-or congenital malformations. 


Home 

Visitation 


Sunshine 

Treatment 


Manfield 

Orthopaedic 

Hospital 







68 


Welfare 

Centres 


Each bed, when occupied, costs the Committee £2 10s. 
per week. The parents of the children are required, by a scale 
adopted in 1929 (which scale is similar to that adopted by the 
Education Committee in such cases), to pay in proportion to 
their income. When a recommended case has been brought 
before the Maternity and Child Welfare Committee, bills are 
issued and payments made by instalments at the Office in 
Dychurch Lane on admission of the child to Manfield Hospital. 

Three beds were occupied at the beginning of 1931 and 
four when the year closed. Nine children were admitted and 
eight discharged. These eight children discharged were in 
hospital 664 days altogether, hence the average length of stay 
for each child was eighty-three days. 

Of the twelve children treated during the year, four had 
congenital malformations, six had rickets, and one spastic 
paralysis. The remaining child suffered from contractures 
following burns. 

There is again an increase in the number of babies and 
children attending the centres for consultations for the first 
time (see Table M. & C.W.5). The table gives the number of 
attendances and consultations at the eight centres in the 
Town. The total average attendance in 1930 of mothers was 
376, of babies and toddlers 432, and of consultations 344. 
In 1931 the corresponding figures were 411, 459, and 247. 

The total number of attendances at all centres during the 


year was as follows :—- 

(a) By babies (under 1 year) . 9,943 

(b) By toddlers (1-5 years). 10,086 


The average attendance of children per session at all 
centres during 1931 was 57. In 1930 the figure was 54. 

The total number of children who attended at the centres 


for the first time during the year was :— 

(a) Children under 1 year of age . 478* 

(b) Children between 1 and 5 years . 124 


Total . 602 


*The figure 478 represents a percentage of 37*3 of the 
notified live births. 

The ladies of the Northampton Maternity and Infant 
Welfare Voluntary Association continue to do their good work 
on the social side. They gained second place again in the 
competition for the Lady Astor Challenge Shield, thus becoming 
the holders of the Kettering Shield for one year. 


Twenty-five midwives notified their intention to practise. 
The Queen’s Institute of District Nursing employed seven of 
these at different times and three were attached to the Welling¬ 
borough Road Institution. Only one bona-fide midwife takes 


Midwives 








69 


cases regularly. During 1931 Nurse Islip, the Senior Health 
Visitor, was made Inspector of Midwives. She paid forty-five 
visits to midwives for the purposes of inspection ; four special 
visits were paid by the Assistant Medical Officer. The notifi¬ 
cations received from midwives are given in Table M. & CAV.6. 

The Queen’s Nurses attended 511 cases in 1931. 

(V 

No new nursing homes were registered. One was con- Maternity 
verted from maternity home to nursing home for three medical Homes 
or surgical cases. Thirty-one visits of inspection were paid 
to nursing homes during the year by the Assistant Medical 
Officer. There are now seven homes in the Town, instead of 
eight as in 1930. One was cancelled owing to removal of the 
owner. Three may admit maternity cases only. One, 

St. Matthew’s Nursing Home, is registered for maternity, 
medical, and surgical cases. 

The Local Authority maintains no maternity home, Maternity 
but has an arrangement with the Northampton General Hospital Cases at 
whereby expectant mothers who are found by the Assistant General 
Medical Officer likely to require institutional treatment at the 
time of confinement are treated in the General Hospital, the 
Local Authority making itself responsible for the cost to the 
hospital for a period not exceeding three days before con¬ 
finement to date of discharge. Cases are admitted on a certifi¬ 
cate from the Assistant Medical Officer, either on account of 
feared complications or unsuitability of the home for confine¬ 
ment to take place there. Nine cases were admitted in 1931. 

The Council provides and maintains one ante-natal clinic at Pre-natal 
the Central Building. Since the discontinuation of attendance Work 
of the Assistant Medical Officer at the clinic at the Queen’s 
Institute of District Nursing, extra sessions have been added 
to the clinic at Dychurch Lane. The clinic at the Queen’s 
Institute is also continued fortnightly by Dr. Emily Shaw. 

It is necessary for this extra time to be given to pre¬ 
natal work, which unlike infant welfare work, is not yet nearing 
the high-water mark in efficiency in reducing mortality ^and 
morbidity. In 1930 roughly a quarter of the expectant mothers 
of the Town were seen at the pre-natal clinics provided by the 
municipality. There were no deaths amongst the cases 
attending in 1930. 

Last year (1931) the figures below indicate a further rise 
in the total number seen at the clinics, one of which is now 
provided by the Queen’s Institute of District Nursing. 

In 1930 the total number of attendances at the Central 
Building clinic was 674. The figure for the previous year was 
454 attendances. In 1931 the number of attendances was 
664 at the Central Building and 107 at the Queen’s Institute, 
making a total of 771. The number of sessions at the Central 




70 


Building clinic was increased from 48 in 1930 to 68 in 1931. 
The total number of new expectant mothers was 285 at the 
Central Building clinic alone. This figure is not available 
for the Central Building for 1930, but there is a great 
increase in 1931 as shewn by the fact that the total number for 
1930 was 298 ; this number includes those seen at the Queen’s 
Institute clinic also. In 1929 the total number was 141 at all 
clinics. From the attendances for the year and the number 
of new cases it will be seen that each patient averaged 2'3 
attendances. This could hardly be less with benefit to the 
patient. The total number of expectant mothers who attended 
the Central Building clinic during the year (including those still 
attending from 1930) was 310. The percentage of total notified 
births, live and still, which the figure 310 represents is 23*3. 
This figure is lower than in reality, as births notified at the 
General Hospital and nursing homes are included in the total 
notified births, some of which normally belong to the County 
statistics. These County women are excluded from the Borough 
clinic. 

The percentage of notified births, live and still, represented 
by the cases seen at the Central Building and Queen’s 
Institute clinics together is as high as 30 * 6. It may be mentioned 
in contrast that the percentage of live births represented by the 
babies attending baby clinics for the first time is 37*3 {see 
“ Welfare Centres ” paragraph on page 68). 

284 patients who had attended the Borough clinic (1930- 
31) had babies born in 1931. Amongst these births were seven 
stillbirths, see table below :— 

Causes of Stillbirth—Maternal and Foetal :— 


(a) ? Syphilis . 3 

{b) Albuminuria . 1 

(c) Pneumonia . 1 

(d) Premature Rupture of Membranes 

(Dry Labour) . 1 

(e) Premature Twins . 1 


Nine premature infants died, including one set of twins. 
Two full term infants also died. See table below :— 

Causes of Death—Maternal and Foetal :— 

Premature. 

{a) Frequent Pregnancies (including one 


set of twins) . 3 

{b) Kidney Disease . 4 

(c) Cause Unknown . 2 

Full Term. 

(a) Melaena Neonatorum (5 days) .... 1 

(b) Marasmus (3 weeks) . 1 


Six births were not traceable, as the patients had removed 
to other districts, 











71 


Doctors and midwives send their patients to the pre-natal 
clinic generally by appointment and in each case a report is 
sent to the doctor or midwife concerned. 

Towards the end of the year a consultant was appointed to 
deal with cases in which operative measures may be thought 
necessary. One case was seen under this category during 1931 
by Mr. Walter Salisbury, F.R.C.S. 

Pregnant women were seen and advised on 195 occasions 
at the welfare centres. 

The Maternity and Child Welfare Committee undertakes Doctors' 
the payment of doctors’ and midwives’ bills in cases where it Bllls 
has been necessary, under the Rules of the Central Midwives 
Board, for a midwife to send for a doctor at a confinement. 

These cases are interviewed and brought to the General Pur¬ 
poses Sub-Committee which decides the amount, if any, to be 
recovered from the patients according to their means. After 
the decision of the Committee, the patient is notified from the 
Central Building Office and payment is made there in weekly 
instalments. 

As in previous years, children under school age and pregnant Dental 
or nursing mothers may be treated by the School Dental Officer Treatment 
on the recommendation of the Assistant Medical Officer. Two 
evenings each week are set apart for this. Payment for treat¬ 
ment is made to the Dental Clinic direct or later by instalments 
at the Central Building or at the welfare centres. 

The cost of material was approximately £34. Bills 
amounting to just under £51 were sent to twenty-two patients. 

Over £47 was collected on these accounts and those outstanding 
from previous years. Over £21 has been collected in small 
fees for which no bills were issued. Table M. & C.W.7 shews 
the numbers dealt with and the forms of treatment. 


Applications for free milk are considered each week by the Free 

11 J t\ T i 1D 

Milk Sub-Committee. Milk is granted to pregnant and nursing 
mothers and for children under one year of age, if the income 
of the family is below a certain scale. The income is ascertained 
from enquiries made of employers and the Employment Bureau. 

One pint of milk is allowed daily for one month, or two pints 
in the case of twins or of a mother who is six months’ pregnant 
and has a baby under one year. Fresh application must be 
made and further enquiries instituted of employers, etc., before 
the end of each month, if the milk is still required. The 
utmost care is taken to prevent ineligible people from obtaining 
this assistance. All applicants are known personally to the 
Assistant Medical Officer and the health visitors. 32,221 pints 
of “ Pasteurised ” milk were supplied under contract with local 
firms at a cost of over £296. 1,155 applications were con- 


72 


Dried 

Milk 


Puerperal 

Fever 


Puerperal 

Pyrexia 


Maternal 

Deaths 


Ophthalmia 

Neonatorum 


siderecl by the Committee, of which 1,094, including 231 re¬ 
newals, were granted. Sixty-one applications were refused. 


“ Cow and Gate ” dried milk is sold at cost price at the 
Central Building Office. This milk is not allowed to women 
in receipt of free milk. When the baby is one year old the milk 
is discontinued. There is a decrease in the amount of “ Cow 
and Gate ” milk sold. 5,036 pounds (as against 6,342 pounds 
in 1930) were sold to 169 separate customers. The cost of this 
was over £377, all of which was paid at the time of purchase. 


Ten cases, including two from the County, occurred. Nine 
were treated at the General Hospital ; three died, two of whom 
were from the County. One of these latter deaths was due to 
general peritonitis and the other to puerperal sepsis, pyelitis, 
and empyema. The Borough case was due to septicaemia. 


There were nine cases notified as suffering from puerperal 
pyrexia. Four were removed to the General Hospital and one 
to the Public Assistance Institution. In one patient pyrexia 
was due to pyelitis, and in another to temporary insanity. One 
case developed empyema and another broncho-pneumonia. 
Two cases were due to dystocia. One case developed a temper¬ 
ature after sutures. In another the cause was unknown. In 
the remaining case there was probably some venereal disease. 
All made good recoveries. 


Five women died, four from puerperal sepsis and one from 
obstetric shock accompanied by acute dilatation of the heart. 
All the sepsis cases were treated at the General Hospital. Only 
one of these women attended the Borough pre-natal clinic. 


Eight cases of ophthalmia were notified. All were mid- 
wives’ cases. Three were treated as in-patients at the General 
Hospital, one in a maternity home, and the remainder were 
dealt with at home. Swabs were taken in all cases but two in 
which no discharge was present at the time of visit. All were 
negative then, but one was found to contain Neisser’s organism 
on admission to the General Hospital. Table M. & C.W. 8 shews 
details of these cases. 

In five instances the discharge commenced during the first 
week, in two about the tenth day, and in the remaining one in 
the third week. In two cases only was there a history of the 
mother having had a vaginal discharge. In two instances 
impairment of vision resulted, viz :—corneal opacities in both 
eyes in one case, and in one eye in the other case. 


73 


Seven babies under the age of two years died from diarr¬ 
hoea and enteritis. The corresponding figure for 1930 was five. 
The rate of 5’7 per thousand live births registered is just below 
that for England and Wales. 

The Maternity and Child Welfare Department was required 
to administer Part I. of the Children Act, 1908, relating to 
foster-children, on 1st April, 1930. The Act provides for the 
supervision of children boarded out with foster-parents for 
gain. The health visitors visit all such children up to the age 
of seven years. The number of foster-parents on the register 
at the beginning of 1931 was thirty-four ; at the end of the year 
thirty-nine. There were thirty-nine children on the register 
at the beginning of 1931 and forty-six at the end. 

During 1931 no legal order was made under the Act. One 
child (along with his brother over seven years of age) was re¬ 
moved by the mother on instructions from the Medical Officer 
of Health because of the unsuitability of the home. 


Diarrhoea 

and 

Enteritis 


Children 
Act, 1908 


74 


Table M.&C.W.l. England and Wales and Northampton, 1922-1931, 
Infant Mortality in Each Year of the Decennium. 


England and Wales .... 
Northampton . 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

77 

52-2 

69 

57-2 

75 

52*1 

75 

66-6 

70 

55-0 

70 

60-9 

65 

53*5 

74 

52-8 

60 

56-4 

66 

70-6 



Table M. & C.W. 2. Northampton, 1927-1931, 
Infant Mortality. Causes of Death*. 


CAUSES OF DEATH. 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

Atrophy, Debility, and Marasmus 

8 

5 

8 

7 

11 

Bronchitis and Pneumonia. 

7 

13 

12 

15 

9 

Congenital Malformations . 

6 

6 

2 

3 

8 

Convulsions . 

4 

3 

3 

2 

5 

Diarrhoea, Enteritis, and Gastritis 

4 

1 

7 

5 

7 

Measles . 

—- 

2 

■—- 

— 

1 

Premature Birth . 

32 

25 

20 

24 

22 

Tuberculous Diseases . 

1 

—- 

—■ 

—■ 

3 

Whooping Cough . 

8 

—- 

1 

5 

1 

All Other Causes . 

8 

15 

13 

8 

20 

Total Deaths . 

78 

70 

66 

69 

87 

Total Live Births . 

1281 

1308 

1249 

1224 

1233 

Infant Mortality . 

60-9 

53-5 

52-8 

56-4 

70-6 


*See also Table D at end of Report. 


Table M. & C.W. 3. Northampton, 1931. 

Live Births and Stillbirths Registered and Notified. 



MALES. 

FEMALES. 

TOTAL. 

Number of Live Births Registered .... 

635 

598 

1233 

Number of Stillbirths Registered . 

19 

24 

43 

Total Number of Births Notified . 

687 

642 

1329 

Number of Live Births Notified . 

664 

616 

1280 

Number of Stillbirths Notified . 

23 

26 

49 









































































75 


Table M. & C.W. 4. Northampton, 1931. 


Notification of Births. Sources of Notification. 



NUMBER. 

PER CENT. 

Medical Practitioners .. 

427* 

32-1 

Certified Midwives .... 

855 

64-3 

Parents and Others .. 

47 

3-6 

Totals. 

1329 

100*0 

*Includes 113 also notified by Midwives. 




Table M. & C.W. 5. Northampton, 1931. 
Maternity and Infant Welfare Centres. Statistics. 


CENTRE. 

DAY OF 

MEETING 

(2.30 TO 

4.30 p.m.). 

AVERAGE ATTENDANCE 

PER WEEK. 

Average 

Number 

consulting 

Doctor 

per 

Session. 

Mothers 

(incl. 

Expectant 
Mothers). 

Babies. 

Toddlers. 

Total 

Babies 

and 

Toddlers. 

Abington Avenue . . 

Thursdays 

75 

35 

46 

81 

33 

Central Building . . 

Wednesdays 

42 

25 

22 

47 

31 

Central Building . . 

Thursdays 

50 

32 

22 

54 

33 

Doddridge 







Memorial . 

Tuesdays . . . . 

47 

19 

29 

48 

29 

Far Cotton . 

Fridays .... 

36 

23 

19 

42 

29 

Kingsthorpe . 

Tuesdays .... 

47 

29 

28 

57 

29 

St. Edmund’s .... 

Fridays .... 

65 

31 

40 

71 

33 

St. Sepulchre’s .... 

Wednesdays 

49 

30 

29 

59 

30 


Totals .... 

411 

224 

235 

459 

247 







































76 


Table M. & C.W. 6, Northampton, 1931. 

Midwives Acts. Notifications received from Midwives. 


NATURE OF REPORT. 

MIDWIVES 

NOTIFYING. 

NO. OF 

REPORTS. 

REMARKS. 

Records of Sending 



Mother’s condition 161 

for Medical Help 

16 

198 

Infant’s condition 

37 

Notifications of Still- 



Full Term ...... 

5 

birth. 

6 

7 

Premature 

2 

Notifications of Death 

5 

9 

Mother. 

0 




Infant . 

9 

Notifications of Arti- 



Mother’s condition 

6 

ficial Feeding . 

5 

7 

Infant’s condition 

l 

Notifications of Liability 





to be a Source of 





Infection . 

8 

11 

—- 


Notifications of Having 





Laid Out a Dead 





Body . 


1 

■ 


Total .... 

17 

232 

— 
























77 


Table M. & C.W. 7. Northampton, 193T 
Summary of Dental Operations. 


NATURE OF OPERATION, ETC. 

MOTHERS. 

CHILDREN. 

TOTALS. 

Number seen . 

51 

144 

195 

Number treated . 

42 

141 

183 

Number of attendances . 

264 

222 

486 

Number of teeth extracted. 

175 

237 

412 

Number of administrations of 




local anaesthetic . 

65 

133 

198 

Number of fillings . 

34 

-— 

34 

Number of linings . 

14 

-—■ 

14 

Number of teeth treated with 




nitrate of silver. 

20 

402 

422 

Number of dressings . 

26 

1 

27 

Number of scalings . 

2 

— - 

2 

Number of artificial plates . . . . 

23 

—• 

23 

Number of plate repairs . 

9 

— - 

9 

Number of teeth on plates . 

237 

—■ 

237 

Number of other operations . . . . 

22 

—■ 

22 

Number completed . 

25 

103 

128 

Number partly completed, 




continued to 1932 .. 

11 

1 

12 


Table M. & C.W. 8 . Northampton, 1931. 
Ophthalmia Neonatorum. Analysis of Cases Notified, with 

Ultimate Result. 


CASES 

NOTIFIED. 

TREATED. 

ULTIMATE IU 

ESULT. 


AT 

HOME. 

IN 

HOSPITAL. 

VISION UN¬ 
IMPAIRED. 

VISION 

IMPAIRED. 

TOTAL 

BLINDNESS. 

DIED. 

8 

4 

4* 

6 

2 

—- 

—- 


*Three as in-patients at the General Hospital and one in a maternity home. 


See also Section VII. of Medical Officer's Report (pages 46 to 50). 








































78 


APPENDIX III. 


STATISTICAL TABLES. 

Table 1. Northampton, 1922-1931. 

Natural Increase of Population in Each Year of the Decennium. 


YEAR 

(middle) 

POPULATION 

(total) . * 

BIRTHS. 

DEATHS. 

NATURAL 

INCREASE. 

INCREASE 
PER 1,000. 

1922 

92950 

1646 

1046 

600 

6-4 

1923 

93230 

1662 

1086 

576 

6-2 

1924 

93590 

1534 

1036 

498 

5-3 

1925 

93970 

1471 

1116 

355 

3*8 

1926 

93740 

1309 

1064 

245 

2*6 

1927 

93260 

1281 

1124 

157 

1*7 

1928 

94270 

1308 

1060 

248 

2*6 

1929 

94180 

1249 

1093 

156 

1-7 

1930 

93460 

1224 

1072 

152 

1*6 

1931 

92970 

1233 

1091 

142 

1*5 


* Estimated by Registrar-General. 


Table 2. England and Wales and Northampton, 1922-1931. 
Birth-rates in Each Year of the Decennium. 



1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

England and Wales . . . . 

20*6 

19*7 

18*8 

18*3 

17*8 

16*7 

16*7 

16*3 

16*3 

15*8 

Northampton .. 

17*7 

17*8 

16-4 

15*6 

14*0 

13*7 

13*9 

13*3 

13*1 

13*3 


Table 3. England and Wales and Northampton, 1922-1931. 
Death-rates in Each Year of the Decennium. 



1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

England and Wales .... 

12*9 

11*6 

12*2 

12*2 

11*6 

12*3 

11*7 

13*4 

11*4 

12*3 

Northampton . 

11*3 

11*6 

1M 

11*9 

11*4 

12*0 

11*3 

11*6 

11*5 

11*8 


















































Table 4. Northampton, 1931. Meteorological Data. 


79 


Quarters. 

First. 

Second. 

Third. 

Fourth. 


DIRECTION OF WIND. 

N.W. 

Quadrant 

including 

N. 

Days. 

m o 05 

r—H r—( 

l> CO CO 

r—< 

XXX 

r—( 

CO < r—< 

r—< 

113 

N.E. 

Quadrant 

including 

E. 

Days. 

CO X o 

T—< 

i—< 04 

r -h CD 

X *-■< X 

55 

S.E. 

Quadrant 

including 

S. 

Days. 

’— M O) 

u> co cm 

X LO X 

o 

50 

S.W. 

Quadrant 

including 

W. 

Days. 

T—H £0 

>"■' t—H 

lo co co 

t—< r—< 

o m x 

04 

O X -F 

04 i—( i—i 

147* 

TEMPERATURE. 

No. of 
Nights at 
or below 
32 deg. 

14 

7 

14 

1 I 

1 i 1 

t> CD 

49 

Minimum. 

Deg. i Date. 

7 

5 

10 

r—H r—< CD 

CM CM 

l-H Tj< X 

04 04 

m o I - * 

04 X X 

Mar. 

10 

24-5 

29-5 

235 

31-0 

36-5 

41-5 

47-5 

44-0 

37-0 

27-0 

34-0 

25-0 

23-5 

Maximum. 

Date. 

CO X o 

— CO 04 

i-—i IT> CO 

r— 04 04 

X i—i tF CD 

^ y i— 1 

Cd X tF 

CD 

C X 

3 0-4 

1 -5 

Deg. 

04 LO LO 

04 CO CO 

LO LO CD 

67-0 

76-0 

78-0 

77-0 

75-5 

70-0 

LO LO LO 

CD 05 05 

X LO LO 

© 

X 

L> 

Mean. 

38- 54 

39- 73 

40- 58 

47-17 

54-56 

60-82 

62-53 

59-57 

54-83 

48-42 

47-06 

42-40 

1 

49-68 

RAINFALL. 

Days on 
which 

0 01 in. or 
more fell, j 

19 

19 

5 

i—i LO LO 

04 i -1 i - * 

X ■'T 

04 i—i i—< 

X 05 04 

H r-H 

04 

X 

Greatest in 

24 hours. 

Depth. Date. 

— [-> x 

CO CO 

2 

21 

5 

'T X X 

r—■< 

05 CO X X 

04 i-h 

V_^ 

g^x 

< 

05 X CD 

r—I 10 O 

6 6 6 

LO X o 

m io cd 

• • • 

1-00 

1-05 

0-88 

o o m 

04 X X 

CD © © 

1-05 

Total 

inches. 

05 CO 

O 05 I—1 

• • • 

^ ^ o 

IO LO X 

CO 04 'f 

CO 04 -2 

3-18 

3-53 

2-50 

- 

m —• 04 

X O X 

© 04 © 

22-67 

MONTH. 

January . . 

February 

March .... 

April .... 

May .... 

June . . . . 

July - 

August 

September 

October . . 

November 

December 

Year 1931 


♦Includes 26 “calm” days (4 in January, 3 in May, 4 in September, 7 in October, 7 in November, and 1 in December). 






















































































































80 


Tables. Northampton, 1931. 

Summary of Routine Work carried out by the Sanitary Inspectors. 



Number of 

No. at which 


Iuspectious, 

Nuisances, 


etc. 

Defects, etc., 



were Found. 

1.—-Total Number of Inspections and Visits . 

18008 


2.—-Number of premises at which Nuisances were Found 


1212 

3.—-Total Number of Houses Inspected . 

1863 

1122 

4.—Number of these Houses Repaired. 


778 

5.—Number of these Houses Cleansed and Whitewashed 


651 

6.—-Number of Houses Cleansed after Certificate of 



M.O.H. (Sec. 46, P.H.A. 1875) . 


2 

7.—Number of First Visits made in consequence of 



Complaints by Residents . 

501 

388 

8.—-Notices Served . 

910 


9.—-Drains :— 



Tested by Smoke Test . 

34 

26 

Tested by Volatile Test .. . . 

37 

10 

Tested by Water Test . 

7 

0 

Exposed under Sec. 41, P.H.A. 1875 . 

5 

5 

Drains reported choked . 


118 

Drains reconstructed . 


38 

Drains repaired . 


58 

Bath, lavatory, or sink waste pipes dis- 



connected from drains. 


0 

New pans fixed to closets . 


30 

Indoor soil pipes abolished. 


0 

Closets supplied with flushing apparatus. 


8 

10.—Contraventions of Bye-laws :— 



Animals kept so as to be a nuisance. 


1 

Animals kept in contravention of Bye-laws 


0 

Accumulations of manure, etc., at :— 



(a) Houses. 


9 

jLk 

(b) Other premises . 


13 

Other contraventions . 


1 

11.—Other Nuisances —- 



Overcrowding in houses . 


11 

Yard pavings re-laid or repaired . 


152 

Spoutings repaired or renewed . 


196 

New slop sinks fixed . 


25 

Inspections of courts and alleys . 

11 

2 

Houses supplied with town water . 


93 

Chimney observations . 

60 

4 

Miscellaneous nuisances ... 


98 


Continued on next page. 










































81 


Table 5.— continued. 



Number of 

No. at which 


Inspections, 

Nuisances, 


etc. 

Defects, etc., 

12. — Factories and Workshops :—• 


were Found. 

Number of Factories Inspected. 

127 

23 

Number of Workshops Inspected . 

133 

14 

Number of Workplaces Inspected. 

Number of Outworkers’ Premises Inspected 

139 

20 

88 

4 

13. — Dairies, Cowsheds, and Milkshops :—- 



Number of Inspections . 

472 

15 

Number of New Registrations . 

17 


14. — Bakehouses—-Number of Inspections . 

272 

37 

15. — Slaughterhouses :•—- 

Number of Inspections while Slaughtering was 



in Progress . 

3619 

22 

Number of Other Inspections . 

235 

14 

16. — Other Premises where Food is Manufactured or 



Stored — -Number of Inspections . 

1311 

22 

17. — Food and Drugs (Adulteration) Act — Number of 



Samples sent to Public Analyst . 

274 

20 

18. — Infectious Diseases — Visits to Infected Houses 



(a) First visits for investigation . 

337 


(b) Weekly visits to secure isolation. 

219 


(c) Visits to control disinfection . 

402 


Visits to Smallpox Contacts . 

105 


Rooms stripped under I.D.P. Act . 

239 


19.—Tuberculosis — -Rooms stripped, etc . 

93 


20. — Number of Visits for Inspection of :— 



(a) Schools . 

19 

2 

(b) Public Lavatories . 

151 

2 

(c) Van-dwellers . 

13 

1 

(d) Cinemas, etc. 

15 

0 

21House-to-House Inspection : — 



Number of Houses Inspected. 

642 

481 

Houses Cleansed and Whitewashed . 


371 

Defective Houses Repaired . 


433 

22.—Houses Unfit for Human Habitation reported to 
M.O.H. under : —- 



(a) Sec. 19, Housing Act, 1930 . 

13 

13 

(6)|Sec. 17,|Housing£Act, 1930 . 

0 

0 
































S2 


Table 6. Northampton, 1931. 
Reconstruction of Drains. 


SITUATION OF PREMISES. 

NO. OF 

HOUSES. 

Abington Avenue, 48 . 

1 

Alfred Street, 30 . 

1 

Althorp Street, 1,3 . 

2 

Augustine Street, 30, 32 .. . . 

2 

Bailiff Street, 100, 102, 104 . 

3 

Bridge Street, 4, 15 ... 

2 

Cowper Street, 34, 36 . 

2 

Cromwell Street, 19 .. . . 

1 

Earl Street, St. Crispin’s Hall . 

1 

Francis Street, 41, 43, 45, 47 . 

4 

Freehold Street, 36, 38, 40 . 

3 

Gas Street, 9 ... 

1 

Guildhall Road, 32 . 

1 

Hunter Street, 91, 93 . 

2 

Kettering Road, 66 . 

1 

Newtown Road, 18, 43, 45 .. . 

3 

Oueens Road, 24 .. 

1 

St. Andrew’s Road, 13, 14, 15, “ Duke of York ” . 

4 

St. James’ Street, 35 . 

1 

Scarletwell Street, 134, 136 . 

2 

Total . 

38 






























83 


Table 7. Northampton, 1931. 

Drain Examination under Section 41 of the Public Health Act, 1875. 


SITUATION OF 

PREMISES. 

RESULT OF 

EXAMINATION. 

REMARKS. 

Alfred Street 30 . 

Defective. 

Reconstructed. 

Repaired. 

Talbot Road, 78, 80, 82, 84 . . . . 

Defective. 


Number of Drains Exami 

ned. 

.5 


Table 8. Northampton, 1919-1931, 

Number of Rats known to have been Destroyed by the Official 

Rat-catcher in each Year. 


YEAR. 

NUMBER 

OF TAILS. 

1919 (three months) . 

163 

1920 ... 

3,214 

1921 . 

2,994 

1922 . 

3,237 

1923 . 

3,337 

1924 . 

3,624 

1925 ... 

2,976 

1926 . 

2,155 

1927 ... 

2,434 

1928 . 

2,814 

1929 . 

3,331 

1930 . 

3,268 

1931 . 

3,449 

Total . 

36,996 








































84 


Table 9. Northampton, 1931. 

Housing Act, 1930. Houses represented during the Year. 
Subsequent Action and Condition at the End of the Year. 



DATE OF 


HOUSES. 

Representations. 

Demolition Orders. 

REMARKS. 

Doddridge Street, 7 

11-2-31 

— 

Converted into 
garage. 

Grafton Street, 8 
and 20 ; Kin- 
burn Place, 2 
and 4 

16-12-31 


To be demolished 
by Improvements 
Committee in con¬ 
nection with street 
widening scheme. 
(No. 4, Kinburn 
Place empty ; rest 
occupied). 

St. John’s Terrace, 

3, 5, and 7 

15-4-31 

27-7-31 

Demolition in pro¬ 
gress. 

Silver Street, 31,33, 
35, 37, and 39 

11-3-31 


Education Commit¬ 
tee asked to de¬ 
molish property. 
(All five houses 
empty). 













85 


Table 10. Northampton, 1931. 


Housing Acts, 1919-1930. Houses represented previous to 1931, 
but not Finally Dealt with before this Year began. Action 
TAKEN DURING 1931, AND CONDITION AT THE END OF THE YEAR. 




DATE OF 



HOUSES. 

Representa¬ 
tions. 

Closing 

Orders. 

Demolition 

Orders. 

REMARKS. 

Bath Terrace, 1,2, 

3, and 4 

10-9-30 


1-6-31 

Standing empty. Under¬ 
taking given by owner 
that houses would not 
be used again for 
human habitation. 

Chapel Gardens, 6 

4-4-28 

7-1-29 

26-1-31 

Demolished. 

7, 8, 9, and 10 





Crispin Street, 25, 

4-5-27 

10-11-27 

—- 

Demolished. 

27, 29, and 31 





Gas Street, 18 

14-4-26 

6-12-26 

4-3-29 

Demolished. 

Gas Street, 36 and 

12-2-30 

5-5-30 

26-1-31 

Demolished. 

38 ; Mill Lane, 3 





Manor Road, “Rose 
Cottage” 

19-11-30 



Repaired to Borough 
Engineer’s satisfac¬ 
tion. 

Mayorhold, 12 and 

19-11-30 

— 

1-6-31 

Demolished. 

13 





Nelson Street, 22 

12-3-30 

7-7-30 

7-12-31 

Standing empty. 

23, and 24 





Regent Square, 1 
and 2 (dwelling 

7-3-28 

4-6-28 

— 

Both empty. (Shops in 
use). 

portions) 





Riding, 25, 26, 27, 
28, and 32 

20-9-22 

4-12-22 


No. 26 occupied ; re¬ 
mainder used as stores 
(not altered). 

Riding, 33, 34, and 
36 

20-9-22 

1-1-23 


No. 34 occupied ; No. 
36 used as store (not 
altered) ; No. 33 
standing empty. 

St. James’ Street, 

2, 4, 6, and 8 

10-9-30 


See 

remarks 

Demolition Orders made 
on Nos. 4, 6, and 8 
on 27-7-31—-demol¬ 
ished ; No. 2 repaired. 

Scarletwell Street, 

10-9-30 

— 

27-7-31 

Demolished. 

26, 28, 30, 32, 
and 34 





Scarletwell Street, 

16-7-30 

28-7-30 

26-1-31 

Demolished. 

Court 2 ; 4 


























86 


Table 11. Northampton, 1931. 

Unsound Food Voluntarily Surrendered and Destroyed, 


NATURE OF FOOD. 


WEIGHT. 

TONS. 

CWTS. 

QRS. 

LBS. 

Beef, home killed . 

23 

5 

0 

14 

Beef, imported .. 

— - 

2 

0 

21 

Mutton, home killed . 

1 

3 

2 

26 

Offal, home killed . 

2 

0 

3 

0 

Pork, home killed . 

5 

0 

0 

25 

Veal, home killed . 

—- 

7 

1 

18 

Chestnuts . 

— 

•—- 

3 

17 

Eggs, imported. 

-—- 

— 

—- 

18 

Fish . 

1 

14 

3 

1 

Fruit . 

— 

5 

0 

0 

Ham . 

—- 

1 

2 

0 

Total (683 surrenders) . 

34 

1 

3 

0 

Also 2,242 tins of food, 1 chicken, 9 ducks 

118 fowls, 24 grouse, 11 

pheasants, 17 pigeons, 11 plovers, 77 rabbits, 2 teals, and 2 turkeys. 


Table 12. Northampton, 1931. 

Unsound Food Seized, Condemned by Magistrates and Destroyed. 


NATURE OF FOOD. 

WEIGHT. 

PLACE 

OF 

SEIZURE. 

REMARKS. 

Pork, home killed 

8 lbs. 0 ozs. 

Butcher’s 

Owner warned. 



shop 


Offal (pork), home 

3 lbs. 2 ozs. 

Butcher’s 

Owner warned. 

killed 


shop 


Offal (pork), home 

1 lb. 4 ozs. 

Butcher’s 

Owner warned. 

killed 


shop 


Total . 

12 lbs. 6 ozs. 











































87 


Table 13. Northampton, 1931. 

Unsound Food. Total Quantity Dealt with by the Department 

DURING THE YEAR. 


METHOD OF OBTAINING POSSESSION. 

WEI 

GHT. 

TONS. 

CWTS. 

QRS. 

LBS. 

3 Seizures . 




12 

0 

683 Surrenders . 

34 

1 

3 

Total . 

34 

1 

3 

12 



Table 14. Northampton, 1931. 

Unsound Food. Statement of Carcases of Meat Condemned, 
shewing Number affected with Tuberculosis. 


NATURE 

OF FOOD. 

MEAT CONDEMNED. 

MEAT FOU 

TUBERC 

ND TO BE 

ULOUS. 

WHOLE 

CARCASES. 

PART 

CARCASES. 

WHOLE 

CARCASES. 

PART 

CARCASES. 

Beef 

79 

52 

55 

48 

Mutton .... 

75 

2 

— 

—- 

Pork . 

85 

129 

39 

129 

Veal . 

9 

2 

2 

— 

































88 


Table 15. Northampton, 1931. 

Food and Drugs. Samples taken for Analysis. 


NATURE OF SAMPLE. 


Ammoniated Tincture 

of Quinine . 

Baking Powder. 

Borax. 

Butter . 

Camphorated Oil . 

Cheese . 

Citrate of Magnesia . . . 

Coffee. 

Cream . 

Custard Powder . 

Dripping . 

Gregory Powder . 

Ground Almonds . 

Ground Ginger . 

Honey . 

Jam . 

Lard . 

Lemonade Powder, etc. 
Lime Juice Cordial . . . 

Margarine . 

Marmalade . 

Milk . 

Milk (condensed) . 

Milk (skim) . 

Mustard . 

Pepper . 

Potted Meat . 

Rice . 

Sago . 

Sausages . 

Sausages (preserved) 

Seidlitz Powder . 

Sugar . 

Sweet Spirit of Nitre . 

Vinegar . 

Wine (Orange Quinine) 
Zinc Ointment . 


Totals 


INFORMAL 

SAMPLES. 

OFFICIAL 

SAMPLES. 

TOTAL 

NO. NOT 

TOTAL 

NO. NOT 

NUMBER. 

GENUINE. 

NUMBER. 

GENUINE. 

3 

-—- 

—■ 

•—- 

2 



_ 

2 

1 

-- 

-—■ 

-- 

— 

6 

-- 

1 

— 

2 

—• 

—• 

—■ 

3 

■—• 

2 

— 

—- 

—• 

—■ 

—- 

1 

—- 

6 

—- 

— 

—- 

1 

— 

—■ 

—- 

— 

-- 

1 

— 

2 

o 

—- 

—■ 

—- 





2 

—- 

—■ 

— 

2 

—■ 

-* 

—■ 

— 

-- 

3 

-- 

■—■ 

—• 

2 

—• 

2 

—- 

-- 

—■ 

—■ 

—■ 

2 

—- 

—• 

—- 

5 

—■ 

— 

-* 

3 

-- 

56 

7 

121 

11 

2 

-—- 

•—- 

-—- 

— 

— 

1 

—- 

2 

— 

— 

— 

3 

— 

— 

-—- 

— 

— 

6 

—• 

—- 

— 

5 

—• 

— 

— 

2 

•—- 

4 

1 

— 

— • 

1 

—■ 

— 

•—- 

2 

■—- 

—- 

— 

-—- 

— • 

3 

-—- 

2 

— 

— 

■—- 

—- 

— 

5 

— 

2 

— 

— 

•—- 

2 




103* 

9 

171* 

11 


*A total of 274 samples, twenty of which (7-3 per cent.) were 
found not to be genuine. 


















































89 


Table US. Northampton, 1931. 

Enterica, Smallpox, Scarlet Fever, and Diphtheria. 


Disease. 

Notifica¬ 

tions. 

Attack- 
rates per 
1 ,000. 

Deaths. 

Death- 

rates. 

Fatality. 

Numbers 
removed to 
Hospital. 

Removal 
rates 
per cent. 

Enterica 

9 

0-10 

0 

— 

— 

8* 

88-9 

Smallpox 

8 

0-09 

0 

— 

— 

8 

100-0 

Scarlet 

Fever 

165 

1-78 

. 


— 

99 

60-0 

Diphtheria 

83 

0-89 

4 

04)4 

4-8 

71 f 

85-5 


* Includes three admitted to the General Hospital, one being trans¬ 
ferred subsequently to the Borough Infectious Diseases Hospital. 

•(•Includes three removed to the General Hospital, two being trans¬ 
ferred to complete recovery at the Borough Infectious Diseases Hospital. 

Table 17. Northampton, 1931. 

Borough Hospital, Harborough Road. Cases of Communicable 

Disease under Treatment. 


Number remaining from 1930 
Number admitted during 1931 
Number discharged during 1931 

Number died during 1931 . 

Number remaining at end of 1931 


Scarlet 

Fever. 

Diph¬ 

theria. 

Enter¬ 

ica. 

Totals. 

17 

16 

-- 

33 

104 

74 

6 

184 

113 

79 

6 

198 

1 

4 

—■ 

5 

7 

7 

— 

14 


Table 18. Northampton, 1931. 

Number of Articles Disinfected by Steam Month by Month at 
the Disinfecting Station, St. Andrew’s Road. 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total. 

592 

1 

674 

642 

684 

423 

508 

370 

287 

256 

373 

304 

387 

5500 


















































Table 19. Northampton, 1931. 

Clinical Bacteriology. Number of Suspected Cases in which Examination was 
Made and the Number and Nature of the Reports Received in Connection with These. 


90 


Totals. 

Reports 

received. 

JRJOX 

1595 

i 

•oatjuSojvj 

1255 

'OAIJTSOfP 

o 

CO 

•S9S123 

pojoadsng jo ojsj; 

CO 

CO 

X 

Other Conditions. 

Reports 

received. 

d^ox 

OJ 


M 

•OAITISOH 

1 

•S0SR3 

pojoodsng jo ’oyj; 

cu 

Tuberculosis— 
Sputum, 

Urine, etc. 

Reports 

received. 

IRJOX 

X 

X 

X 

■oaii'bSojsj 


•9AIJISOX 

X 

T-H 

•S0SR3 

pajoadsng jo -onj 

r— ■« 

ic 

Typhoid and 
Paratyphoid Fevers— 
Dreyer’s Tests, etc. 

Reports 

received. 

IRJ°X 

CU 

•OAij'pSayj 


•OAIJISOJ 

CO 

•sasn^ 

pojoodsng jo oyi 


DIPHTHERIA'— 

Throat and Nose 
Secretions. 

Reports 

received. 

- FUX 

1005 


05 

o 

•OAIJISOX 

X 

OI 

CU 

•SOSRg) 

psjoodsng jo oyj 

X 

05 

X 


a 


0 

U 

IS) 

in 

0 

in 

vU 

0 

Si 


0 

0 

£h 

0 

> 

0 


£ 


0 

0 


o 

0 











































91 


Table A. 

COUNTY BOROUGH OF NORTHAMPTON. 
Vital Statistics during 1931 and Previous Years. 


Y ear. 

1 

Total 
Popula¬ 
tion esti¬ 
mated to 
Middle 
of each 
Year. 

2 

Births. 

Total Deaths 
registered in the 
District. 

Transferable 

Deaths. 

Nett Deaths belonging to 
the District. 

Uncor¬ 

rected 

Number. 

3 

Nett. 

Non- 
resi¬ 
dents 
regis¬ 
tered 
in the 
District. 

8 

Resi¬ 
dents 
not 
regis¬ 
tered 
in the 
District. 

9 

Under One Year. 

At all Ages. 

Number. 

6 

Rate. 

7 

Number. 

4 

Rate. 

5 

Number. 

10 

Rate 

per 

1,000 

Live 

Births. 

11 

Number. 

12 

Rate. 

13 

1921 

92300 

1924 

1881 

20-4 

1022 

111 

123 

65 

124 

65-9 

964 

10-4 

1922 

92950 

1697 

1646 

17-7 

1108 

119 

116 

54 

86 

52-2 

1046 

11-3 

1923 

93230 

1723 

1662 

17-8 

1177 

12-6 

140 

49 

95 

57-2 

1086 

116 

1924 

93590 

1591 

1534 

16-4 

1143 

12-2 

149 

42 

80 

52 T 

1036 

111 

1925 

93970 

1531 

1471 

156 

1229 

131 

167 

54 

98 

66-6 

1116 

119 

1926 

93740 

1393 

1309 

140 

1163 

12*4 

174 

75 

72 

55-0 

1064 

114 

1927 

93260 

1362 

1281 

13-7 

1248 

13*4 

170 

46 

78 

60-9 

1124 

120 

1928 

94270 

1366 

1308 

139 

1204 

12-8 

207 

63 

70 

535 

1060 

11-3 

1929 

94180 

1332 

1249 

133 

1269 

13-5 

226 

50 

66 

52-8 

1093 

116 

1930 

93460 

1334 

1224 

131 

1217 

130 

193 

48 

69 

56 A 

1072 

11-5 

1931 

92970 

1307 

1233 

133 

1243 

134 

205 

53 

87 

70-6 

1091 

118 


This Table is arranged to shew the gross births and deaths in the 
district and the births and deaths properly belonging to it with the 
corresponding rates. 

Column 6 includes the whole of the deaths registered during the 
year as having actually occurred within Northampton and excludes any 
deaths of soldiers and sailors. Such deaths were as follow :— 


YEAR. NO. OF DEATHS. 

1921 . 0 

1922 . 0 

1923 . 1 

1924 . 0 

1925 . 0 

1926 . 2 

1927 . 0 

1928 . 0 

1929 . 0 

1930 . 0 

1931 . 0 
























































TABLE B. 


COUNTY BOROUGH OF NORTHAMPTON. 
Cases of Notifiable Diseases during the Year 1931. 





NUMB] 

^R OF CASES NOTIFIED. 





CASES 

NOTIFIED IN EACH WARD. 



O £ 

-+-> ct 

rv-4 4-» 

W • 

<l> r\ 

+* & 

.ti o 

EX 

CO * 

H * 

£ 2 

NOTIFIABLE DISEASE. 

All 





AGES (in Years). 





d 

o 

4-> 

be 

0) 

ai 

U 

CL 

Kingsley. 

Kingsthorpe. 

rC 

rispin’s. 

St. 

Edmund’s. 

1 n 
<U 

B 

d 

St. 

Lawrence’s. 

St. 

Michael’s. 

r* 

r—1 

T3 J* 

<1 be 

co o 
<L» g 

CO J* 

cti O 

_ — 

a H 

-4—' 

o ^ 

H ^ 


Ages. 

0- 

1- 

2- 

3- 

4- 

5- 

10- 

15- 

20- 

35- 

45- 

65- 

g 

< 

4-> 

CO 

otf 

(J 

13 

0 

u 

O 

& 

u 

L 

in 

-4-> 

C/3 

r 

a 

m 


Acute Poliomvelitis . 

1 

1 

— 

— 























i 

Diphtheria . 

83 

1 

2 

— 

3 

6 

49 

13 

3 

4 

1 

1 

— 

6 

15 

5 

9 

10 

7 

2 

4 

6 

4 

3 

12 

70 

4 

Encephalitis Lethargica . 

2 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

— 

— 

— 

1 

— 

■— 

— 

— 

— 

2 

Enterica . 

9 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

4 

— 

1 

3 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

6 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

— 

2 

6 

— 

Erysipelas . 

42 

4 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

— 

3 

3 

20 

11 

5 

3 

2 


1 

5 

5 

— 

2 

4 

4 

6 

— 

2 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum . 

8 

8 

— 











1 



2 

2 

3 









Pneumonia . 

143 

4 

13 

8 

4 

2 

14 

10 

7 

14 

16 

35 

16 

9 

16 

8 

19 

18 

15 

9 

7 

12 

17 

8 

5 

— 

53* 

Puerperal Fever .-.. 

10 








— 

9 

1 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

1 

1 

1 

— 

1 

2 

— 

• — 

3 

— 

4 

Puerperal Pvrexia . 

9 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

8 

1 

— 

— 

1 

— 

— 

1 

3 

3 

1 

— 

■— 

■— 

-— 

— 

— 

— 

Scarlet Fever . 

165 

— 

2 

3 

15 

9 

79 

29 

8 

17 

2 

1 

— 

18 

10 

13 

35 

17 

11 

4 

5 

18 

7 

16 

11 

99 

— 

Smallpox . 

8 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

4 

1 

— 

1 

1 

1 

— 

— 

— 

— 

—■ 

2 

•— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

4 

2 

8 

— 

Tuberculosis :—• 

Respiratory . 

115 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

3 

13 

55 

20 

21 

2 

10 

11 

2 

16 

9 

12 

5 

8 

11 

14 

8 

9 

63f 

70 

Other Forms . 

29 

2 

2 

2 

1 

1 

7 

2 

4 

4 

2 

1 

1 

1 

5 

2 

2 

7 

2 

1 

—• 

1 

5 

3 

— 

s: 

14 

Totals . 

624 

20 

19 

13 

23 

19 

159 

59 

36 

118 

47 

81 

30 

51 

61 

33 

91 

76 

59 

27 

26 

52 

52 

46 

50 

i 

249 

150 


*Nine of these were from influenzal pneumonia. 

fThirty-seven to Welford Road Hospital and twenty-six to Creaton Sanatorium. 

+ All three to Manfield Orthopaedic Hospital. 

The above figures take no account of corrections in diagnosis. (See Section VI. of this Report for further information). 

Institutions —(1) Harborough Road Infectious Diseases Hospital (85 beds, allowing 144 sq. ft. per bed) ; 

(2) Smallpox Hospital, near Hardingstone (48 beds, allowing 144 sq. ft. per bed) ; 

(3) Welford Road Tuberculosis Hospital (28 beds) ; 

(4) Creaton Sanatorium, Northampton (15 beds reserved for Northampton County Borough) ; 

(5) Manfield Orthopaedic Hospital, Northampton (20 beds available for surgical tuberculosis cases). 
































































































TABLE C. 


COUNTY BOROUGH OF NORTHAMPTON. 

Causes of Death at Different Periods of Life during the Year 1931. 


Causes of Death. 

Nett Deaths at the Subjoined Ages (in Years) of “ Residents ” 

WHETHER OCCURRING WITHIN OR WITHOUT THE DISTRICT. 

Total 
Deaths 
whether 
<<f Residents 
or Non- 
Residents 
in 

Institutions 
in the 
District. 

All Ages. 

0- 

1- 

2_ 

5- 

15- 

25- 

35- 

45- 

55- 

65- 

75- 

Total. 

M. 

F. 



ALL 


f Certified . 

1091 

540 

551 

87 

9 

16 

20 

37 

50 

59 

114 

173 

224 

282 

472 

CAUSES 

Uncertified . 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 


— 

— 

— 



— 

— 

— 

— 

1. 

Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fevers 
















2. 

Measles . 

9 

4 

5 

1 

2 



1 








3. 

Scarlet Fever . 
















4. 

Whooping Cough . 

2 

1 

i 

1 


1 










5. 

Diphtheria . 

4 

1 

3 



1 










♦6. 

Influenza . 

23 

8 

1 5 





1 

1 

9 

3 

4 

4 

8 

2 

7. 

Encephalitis Lethargica . 

2 

1 

i 





1 



1 

3 

8. 

Cerebro-spina.l Fever 

1 

1 







i 






9 

9. 

Tuberculosis of Respiratory System 

70 

33 

37 

— 

_ 

___ 

1 

13 

20 

15 

14 

5 

1 

1 

13 

*10. 

Other Tuberculous Diseases 

14 

9 

5 

3 

1 

3 

5 

1 

1 






14 

11. 

Syphilis . 













12. 

General Paralysis of the Insane, 

















Tah>e<; Dorsalis 

1 

1 










1 




13 

C'.tt n cer 

lYTalicrnant Dispasp 

148 

66 

82 






2 

8 

30 

43 

37 

28 

65 

14. 

Diabetes . 

7 

2 

5 







1 

2 

1 

3 

8 

15. 

Cerebral Haemorrhage, etc. . . . . 

69 

34 

35 

— 

— 

__ 

— 

— 

1 


3 

4 

29 

32 

19 

16. 

Heart Disease . 

245 

107 

138 

— 

— 

1 

1 

4 

4 

10 

15 

42 

78 

90 

49 

17. 

Aneurysm. 

2 

2 

— 

— 

— 

-- 

— 

-- 

— 

— 

1 

1 

— 

— 

1 

*18. 

Other Circulatory Diseases . 

45 

33 

12 

■—■ 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

— 

2 

9 

20 

13 

13 

19. 

Bronchitis . 

73 

33 

40 

4 

1 

-- 

— 

— 

— 

3 

4 

6 

11 

44 

16 

*20. 

Pneumonia (all forms) . 

44 

28 

16 

5 

2 

1 

3 

4 

— 

— 

7 

7 

9 

6 

20 

21. 

Other Respiratory Diseases . 

12 

7 

5 

— 

— 

—- 

— 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 

— 

2 

9 

22. 

Peptic Ulcer. 

12 

7 

5 

—- 

— 

—- 

— 

— 

1 

2 

3 

2 

3 

1 

IS 

23. 

Diarrhoea, etc. 

9 

3 

6 

7 

— 

—• 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

1 

5 

24. 

Appendicitis . 

8 

3 

5 

—- 

— 

—- 

1 

1 

1 

1 

— 

2 

1 

1 

16 

25. 

Cirrhosis of Liver . 

2 

1 

1 

— 

— 

-—- 

— 

— 

■—- 

— 

— 

2 

— 

— 

— 

26. 

Other Diseases of Liver, etc . 

2 

1 

1 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

— 

— 

1 

— 

— 

— 

5 

27. 

Other Digestive Diseases . 

22 

10 

12 

2 

— 

1 

1 

— 

— 

1 

6 

4 

5 

2 

20 

28. 

Acute and Chronic Nephritis .... 

37 

27 

10 

— 

— 

-—- 

1 

— 

2 

— 

8 

11 

13 

2 

9 

29. 

Puerperal Sepsis . 

4 

— 

4 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

2 

1 

— 

— 

— 

— 

5 

30. 

Other Puerperal Causes . 

1 

— 

1 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

4 

31. 

Congenital Debility, Premature 

















Birth, Malformations, etc. 

50 

28 

22 

50 

— 

— 

—• 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

30 

32. 

Senility . 

35 

9 

26 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

—- 

— 

— 

2 

33 

4 

33. 

Suicide 


21 

17 

4 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

3 

7 

4 

4 

2 

1 

5 

34. 

Other Violence . 

36 

25 

11 

5 

— 

1 

1 

3 

5 

4 

5 

4 

3 

5 

47 

*35. 

Other Defined Causes . 

81 

38 

43 

9 

3 

2 

3 

5 

3 

2 

5 

16 

24 

9 

69 

36. 

Causes Ill-defined or Unknown 















1 

Totals . 

1091 

540 

551 

87 

9 

16 

20 

37 

50 

59 

114 

173 

244 

282 

472 


♦Sub¬ 
entries 
included 
in above 
figures 


6 (a) Influenzal Pneumonia 
10 (a) Tuberculous Meningitis 
18 (a) Arterio-sclerosis 
20 
35 


(a) Broncho-pneumonia 

(a) Erysipelas . 

(, b) Acute Poliomyelitis 
\c) Chickenpox . 

( d ) Rheumatic Fever . . 

(e) Meningitis . 


9 

10 

39 

22 

2 

1 

1 

3 

1 


2 

6 

29 

13 

1 

1 

1 


7 

4 

10 

9 

1 

1 

2 


2 

5 


1 

2 


3 

1 


4 

1 

1 

1 


1 

2 


2 

2 


7 

1 


18 

5 

1 


12 

4 


1 

11 

7 

11 

2 

1 

2 

3 


NETT DEATHS REGISTERED. 


M. 


TOTALS. 


DEATH-RATES. 


First Quarter 
Second Quarter 
Third Quarter 
Fourth Quarter 


170 

192 

362 

15 6 

134 

117 

251 

108 

101 

109 

210 

9 1 

135 

133 

268 

116 

540 

551 

1091 

118 


Totals (52 weeks) 






















































































































TABLE D 


COUNTY BOROUGH OF NORTHAMPTON. 

INFANT MORTALITY DURING THE YEAR 1931. 

Nett Deaths from stated Causes at various Ages under One Year. 


Causes of Death. 


ALL 

CAUSES 


r Certified 
Uncertified 


1 . 

2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6 . 

7. 

8 . 
9. 

10 . 

11 . 

12 . 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

19. 

20 . 
21 . 
22 . 

23. 

24. 

25. 

26. 
27. 


1 


Smallpox . 

Chickenpox . 

Measles . 

Scarlet Fever . 

Whooping Cough . 

Diphtheria . 

~ Erysipelas . 

C Tuberculous Meningitis . 

J Abdominal Tuberculosis . 

I Other Tuberculous Diseases 
Meningitis (not Tuberculous ) 

Convulsions . 

Laryngitis . 

Bronchitis . 

Pneumonia (all forms) . 

" Diarrhoea . 

Enteritis . 

Gastritis . 

Syphilis . 

Rickets . 

Suffocation, overlaying . 

Injury at Birth . 

Atelectasis . 

f Congenital Malformations . 

\ Premature Birth . 

(_ Atrophy, Debility, and Marasmus 
Other Causes . 


Totals 


Under 
1 week. 


29 


4 

3 

15 

3 

3 


29 


Live Births Registered. 


Legitimate 

Illegitimate 


M. 

F. 

Total. 

607 

564 

1171 

28 

34 

62 

635 

598 

1233 


1 week 
and 

under 2 
weeks. 


11 


3 

3 

2 

1 


11 


2 weeks 
and 

under 3 
weeks. 


6 


1 

1 

2 

1 


3 weeks 
and 

under 4 
weeks. 


1 


Nett Deaths Registered. 
M. F. Total. 


42 

39 

81 

3 

3 

6 

45 

42 

87 


Total 

under 

4 weeks. 

4 weeks 
and 

under 3 
months. 

3 months 
and 

under 6 
months. 

6 months 
and 

under 9 
months. 

9 months 
and 

under 12 
months. 

Total 

Deaths 

under 

1 year. 

50 

11 

10 

10 

6 

87 













— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

1 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

— 

1 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

-— 

2 

2 

•— 

— 

•— 

— 

1 

1 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

-- 

1 

2 

1 

— 

1 

5 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

2 

1 

— 

1 

— 

4 

— 

— 

3 

1 

1 

5 

•— 

1 

— 

1 

— 

2 

3 

1 

1 

— 

— 

5 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

— 

— 

— 

1 

1 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

5 

— 

— 

— 

— 

5 

7 

1 

— 

— 

— 

8 

21 

1 

— 

-— 

— 

22 

5 

3 

3 

— 

— 

11 

5 


2 

6 

' 

13 

50 

11 

10 

10 

6 

87 


Infant Death-rates. 

M. 

F. 

Total. 

692 

69 2 

69 2 

1071 

882 

96 8 

709 

70-2 

706 


Totals .. 
































































































TABLE E. 


NORTHAMPTON, 1931. 


2.—DEFECTS FOUND. 


REPORT ON THE 

Administration of the FACTORY & WORKSHOP ACT, 1901, in connection with 

Factories, Workshops, Workplaces, and Homework. 


1.—INSPECTION. 


Premises. 

(1) 

Number of 


Inspections. 

(2) 

Written 

Notices. 

(3) 

Prosecutions. 

(4) 

FACTORIES . 

127 

23 


(Including Factory Laundries and Bakehouses) 


WORKSHOPS . 

133 

14 


(Including Workshop Laundries and Bakehouses) 




WORKPLACES . 

139 

20 


(Other than Outworkers’ Premises) 


OUTWORKERS’ PREMISES . 

88 

4 


Totals . 

487 

61 

— 


Particulars. 

(1) 

Number of Defects. 

Referred 

Found. Remedied ! to H.M. 

Inspector. 

(2) 1 (3) 1 (4) 

Number 

of 

Prosecu¬ 

tions. 

(5) 

Nuisances under the Public Health Acts :—* 





Want of Cleanliness . 

11 

11 

— 

— 

Want of Ventilation . 

— 

— 

— 

— 

Overcrowding. 

— 

— 

— 

— 

Want of Drainage of Floors . 

— 

— 

— 

— 

Other Nuisances. 

10 

10 

— 

— 

c insufficient . 

— 

— 

— 

— 

Sanitary Accommodation 5 unsuitable or defective . 

( i ot separate for sexes . 

1 

1 

— 

— 

2 

2 

— 

— 

Offences under the Factory and Workshop Acts :— 





Illegal occupation of underground bakehouse (s. 101) .... 

Breach of special sanitary requirements for bakehouses 

~ 




(ss. 97 to 100). 

37 

36 

— 

— 

Other Offences . 

(Excluding offences relating to outwork which are 
included in Part 3 of this Report) 





Totals . 

61 

60 

— 

— 

including those specified in sections 2, 3, 7, and 8 of the Factory and Workshop 
remediable under the Public Health Acts. 

Act, 1901, 

as 


HOMEWORK. 


OUTWORK IN UNWHOLE¬ 
SOME PREMISES, 
SECTION 108. 

OUTWORK IN INFECTED 
PREMISES. 

SECTIONS 109, 110. 

Instances. 

Notices 

served. 

Prose¬ 

cutions. 

Instances. 

Orders 
made 
(S. 110). 

Prose¬ 
cutions. 
(Sections 
109, 110). 

(11) 

(12) 

(13) 

(14) 

(15) 

(16) 

4 

4 

— 



— 


NATURE OF WORK. 


( 1 ) 


Wearing Apparel 

(1) Making, etc. 


OUTWORKERS’ LISTS, SECTION 107. 


Lists received from Employers. 

Sending twice in a year. 

Sending once in the year. 

Lists. 

(2) 

Outw< 

orkers. 

Lists. 

(5) 

Outworkers. 

Con¬ 

tractors. 

(3) 

Work¬ 

men. 

(4) 

Con¬ 

tractors. 

(6) 

Work¬ 

men. 

(7) 

4 

2 

6 

4 

2 

20 


Notices 
served on 
Occupiers 
as to 

keeping or 
sending 
lists. 

( 8 ) 


Prosecutions. 


Failing to 
keep 

or permit 
inspection 
of lists. 

( 9 ) 


Failing 
to send 
lists. 

( 10 ) 


There are no Outworkers in any of the other trades usually shewn in the above Table. 
Figures given in Cols. 11 and 12 refer to premises requiring cleansing and whitewashing. 


4.— REGISTERED WORKSHOPS. 

5.—OTHER MATTERS. 

-Workshops on the Register (S. 131) at the end ot the year. 

Number. 

Class. 

Number. 

(1) 

(2) 

(1) 

(2) 

Number of Workshops (including Bakehouses) . 

212 

Matters Notified to H.M. Inspector of Factories :— 




Failure to affix abstract of Factory and Workshop Act (s. 133) . 

1 

Number of Outworkers’ Premises on Register . 

58 





Action taken in matters referred by b Notified bv H.M. Inspector .. 

3 



H M. Inspector as remediable under ( 




the Public Health Acts, but not under 1 Reports (of action taken) sent to H.M. Inspector 

2 



the Factory and Workshop Act (s. 5) j 




Other . 




Underground Bakehouses (s. 101) in use at the end of the year. 

1 

TOTAL Number of Workshops on Register .... 

270 



































































































































? 





' 





















: ■■■.-: H-: 




. ' 

-